浅析表示状态变化的连系动词

作者:浅析表示状态变化的连系动词 来源:未知 2021-04-23   阅读:

浅析表示状态变化的连系动词浅析表示状态变化的连系动词赵国强英语中,除be动词之外,还有许多表示状态的特征、存在和变化的连系动词。get,bec

浅析表示状态变化的连系动词

浅 析 表 示 状 态 变 化 的 连 系 动 词

赵 国 强

  英语中,除be动词之外,还有许多表示状态的特征、存在和变化的连系动词。get, become, grow, turn, come, go, fall以及run, wear, make等动词能够表达“成为”、“变成”等意义,即表示状态的变化。如:get ready(准备好), run dry(干枯), go wrong(出毛病),fall due(到期)等。 有些词组的结构搭配较为固定,毋需赘述。但纵观其它连系动词及自身相互比较,表示状态变化的连系动词有以下特点。

  一、时态表达 直接自然

  一般而言,如果不表达某一特殊含义,连系动词是没有进行时和完成时的。seem, appear等连系动词的进行时和完成时也必须通过其后的不定式或从句来表达。而表示状态变化的连系动词都可以直接用进行时、完成时及将来时来表达正在(渐渐)、已经或将要“变得”或“成为”等时间概念或意义。试比较下列几组句子:

1) He seemed to be writing something.(=It seemed that he was writing something.)

他好象在写什么东西。

Our country is becoming (或getting) stronger and stronger.

我们国家日益强大。

2) He seems (或appears) to have been to Beijing. (=It seems (或appears) that he has been to Beijing.)

他似乎去过北京。

The custom has now become a rule.

那习俗现已变为成规。

This material has worn thin.

这料子已磨薄了。

3) It seems as if it is going to rain.

看来快下雨了。

The milk in the cup will go bad.

杯子里的牛奶要坏了。

  二、内部结构 各有侧重

  连系动词要跟表语。表示状态变化的连系动词和表语的基本结构如以下图表:(其后的例词为其中部分较常见的结构搭配)

词 例 形容词   名 词 过去分词 不定式   介 词

get ready/ strong/ sick an old man married/ used to/ drunk/ to know/ to like/ to be under way

become easy/ silent chairman/

a big problem known/ crowded __ of...

grow tall/old/ hot __ excited/ advanced to like/ to be out of fashion/ into..

turn red/pale / sour writer/ traitor un-结构 __ __ into. from ...to...

come true/ cheap/dear __ to know/ to be on duty

go white/ hungry the colour/pink

(较少用) unnoticed/ unpunished __ out of fashion/

out of one's mind

fall ill/ asleep victim/

(或prey) __ __ in love with/ out of fashion

run dry/wild/ short __ __ __ __

wear thin __ __ __ __

make __ a good actor __ __ __

以上图表显示出有关连系动词和表语较常见的搭配。可以看出,它们大都用途广泛,结构灵活。及某一方面的侧重或特色。但在实际使用中是有分寸的。

  1、除make外, 均可接形容词,表示“(渐渐)变成(某种状态)”;come表示“算起来(贵、贱等)”。

It grew (或got, became) colder as night drew on.

当夜幕降临时,天气渐渐变得冷一些了。

We may not get wiser as we get older.

不一定年龄越大就越聪明。

Your hair has turned (或gone) grey.

你的头发变白了。

The horse fell lame.那马跛了。

The boy's wish to become an expert has come true.

那孩子想当专家的愿望已经实现。

The expense comes cheap [expensive/dear].

这开支算起来便宜(昂贵)。

  2、become, get, turn, make, fall可接名词,但各有特点。get后的名词前可加to be,而become则不行;turn跟名词时,前面多不加冠词。make必须与有定语的名词连用; fall常与victim,prey(牺牲者、受害者)等名词连用。(go偶尔接颜色类名词)

He has become (或got) a (famous) scientist.

他成了(著名)科学家。

He has made a famous scientist.

他成了著名科学家。

He used to be a soldier till he turned writer.

他当作家之前曾是战士。

The guard fell a victim to the dagger of a murderer.

警卫死于凶手的刀下。

She fell (或was falling) an easy prey to him.

她轻易地被他控制着。

 3、分词前面多用become和 get表示;也有用grow接分词的情况;以un-开头的过去分词前主要用come,还有用go来表示的。

The room soon became crowded.

屋里一会儿就挤满了人。

At last the truth became (或got) known.

最后真相大白了。

Don't get caught in the storm.

别让暴风雨淋着了。

Has he got engaged [married]?

他定婚(结婚)了吗?

Look out! You nearly got hit by the car.

当心!你差点让车给撞了。

The string came undone.

绳子散了。

The buttons on my coat came unfastened.

我的上衣扣子松了。

The package he is carrying is about to come unwrapped.

他扛的包快要散了。

The murderer shall not go unpunished.

凶手必须受到惩罚。

We soon grew dissatisfied with our work.

我们很快对自己的工作不满意了。

  4、come, go, get等后面可接不定式,表示一种状态的变化;有些结构中to be可以省略。注:become后不能接不定式。

Mr Smith is getting (to be) an old man.

史密斯先生渐渐成了老人。

I've come to like him.

我渐渐喜欢他了。

She's growing (或getting) to hate those who don't keep their promise.

她渐渐地痛恨那些说话不算数的人了。

He has grown to be a fine young man.

他长成个很好的男子汉了。

  5、come, go, grow, get, fall接介词短语的情况较多一些,有些已构成固定表达。如:go into a rage(大发雷庭); fall into despair(陷入绝望之中)。另举几例:

He has grown into a fine young man.他长成个很棒的男子汉了。

At nine, she fell in love with the pipa. 她九岁就爱上了琵琶。

The child comes of(或from) a poor family.孩子出身于贫家。

  三、褒贬色彩 各居其位

  1、有些连系动词受到原行为动词意义的影响,常常褒贬搭配,泾渭分明。如:

go bad [hungry, mad, blind, deaf, tired, etc.]变坏(饿、疯、瞎、聋、累……)

turn sour [cold, chilly, pale, quarrelsome, etc.]变得酸(冷、寒冷、苍白、爱争吵……)

fall ill (或sick) [asleep,silent, etc.]生病、睡着、沉默起来……

come true [right]变为现实(正确)

grow rich[ tall, large, clever, old, etc.]变得富裕(高、大、聪明、年老……)

  2、颜色类形容词如red, green等前面多用turn和go,亦有用grow等词来表示的。

Her face went (或turned) red with anger.

她脸都气红了。

She went black in the face.

她(气得或累得)脸上发紫。

The fox may grow grey, but never good.

(谚语)江山易改,本性难移。

  应该注意的是,由于表示状态变化的连系动词均由行为动词演变而成。因此,究竟怎样搭配,还是应该按照不同的意义、语境或结构加以处理,从而表达出某种最准确的固定含义。如:

The milk has gone bad.=The milk has turned.

牛奶坏了。

The wheat is coming nicely.

小麦长势良好。

Something has gone wrong with my watch.

我的手表出了毛病。

Everything went well [badly].

一切情况良好(恶劣)。

本文登于《中小学外语教学》95年第8期

连 接 词 小 归 纳

广东省深圳市宝安中学 赵国强(518101)

表达句子或篇章,总要用一些得体的词语(如连词、副词、短语等)将一对对名词、形容词、副词、动词、短语或句子串在一起,使其优美、紧凑和连贯。以下有关短语不妨在相应的层面经常用一用:

表并列:and, both…and, or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but(also)

表层进:first(ly), second(ly), then, after that, what’s more, besides, finally, in addition

表举例:for example, for instance, after all

表解释:in this case, that is (to say)/namely, in other words, in other words, as a matter of fact

表总结:in a word, in brief , of course, it is true, altogether, on the whole, therefore

表强调:of course, indeed, above all ,certainly, in fact

表让步:although/ while, in spite of, all the same, even so, after all

表转折:at the same time, but, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, yet, even so, even though, however, instead

表时间:after a while, afterward, again, and then, at last, at that time

表条件:if, unless, once, on condition that, suppose/supposing, as long as

本文曾发表于《学生双语报》高二版2004年第10期

过 去 分 词 在 非 谓 语 动 词 中 的 语 态 时 态 特 征

广东省深圳市宝安中学 赵国强 (518101)

有关动词过去分词的用法是英语学习中不可忽视的重要一环。谓语中,be动词的相应形式+过去分词多表示被动,have的相应形式+过去分词只表示完成,正因为过去分词借助某种形式可以表示被动或已经完成的动作,因此,过去分词在非谓语动词中亦自然具有相应的语态时态特征。单独过去分词在某些特定结构中可以表示该动词的被动或完成意义。

一、单独过去分词可以表示被动

1.宾语补足语中的过去分词表被动

感官动词和使役动词(如see, feel, find, make, need等)后面的宾语补足语,大多直接采用过去分词表示被动意义。如:

1) He often hears the song sung in the next room.他经常听见这首歌在隔壁房间唱起。

(比较:He often hears someone sing the song in the next room.他经常听见有人在隔壁房间唱歌。)

2) Would you like to have/get the bike repaired?你想要自行车给修一下吗?

(比较:Would you like to have someone repair the bike?或Would you like to get someone to repair the bike? 你想要请人修一下自行车吗?)

3) I won’t have anything said against him.我不容许背着他说他的坏话。

4)Will you speak a little louder so that you can make yourself heard?你讲大声点以便让别人听见你说的好吗?

5)Do you need the letter typed at once?你需要这信马上给打一下吗?

但并非所有动词后面的宾补都可单独使用过去分词表示被动,因此,相关被动意义的得体表达还需因词制宜。如:

1) They will not allow such things to be done.他们将不准做这种事。

2) I won’t let them be treated in that way.我不能让他们受到这样的对待。

3) We suggested them being sent to hospital at once.我们建议他们给立即送往医院。

2. 状语中的过去分词表被动

正如现在分词可以用来代替主语+主动语态动词一样,过去分词也可以代替主语+被动语态动词结构。也就是说,单独过去分词作状语,相当于被动语态的状语从句。该结构中的过去分词短语之前大多不必添加being来表示进行等意义。

1)Led by the old man, we had no difficulty in finding his house.=As we were led by the old man, we had no difficulty….由于老人带路,我们不费劲便找到他的家。

2)Satisfied with the boy’s answer, the teacher had a sweet smile.=Because the teacher was satisfied with…, he had …由于对男生的答案感到满意,老师甜甜地笑。

4) Given more time, they will probably agree.=If they are given more time, they will….如果多给点时间,他们很可能会同意的。

3. with复合结构中的过去分词表被动

with后的宾语所带的动词,如果与宾语之间属被动关系,只用过去分词表达。如:

1)With the gold cup held in his hand, he felt very excited.手里握着金杯,他很是兴奋。

2)The young guy lay on the grass with his hands crossed under his head.年轻人躺在草地上,双手叉着枕在头下。

4. 连词后的过去分词表被动

引导状语从句的连词(如when, while, though, once, as if等),大都单独采用过去分词表示被动,相当于一个省略的状语从句。如:

1)Don’t keep silent when (you’re)asked a question.当(别人)在问你的时候别不做声。

2)Once/ If (it’s) whipped, the horse will run faster.一旦(如果)抽鞭子,马就跑得快些。

3)Though (he was) taken there in his childhood, he still didn’t know the place well.虽然小时候给带到那儿去过,但他对这地方还是不熟。

但要注意:由before, after引导的被动语态动词短语代替从句,必须在过去分词前加上being。如:

After being shown around the factory, we had a rest.当领着参观工厂之后,我们休息了一会儿。(试比较:When shown around the factory, we had a Having been shown around the factory, we had a rest.)

5. 谓语中的过去分词表被动

在广告、通知、标题等文体中,为了行文简洁明了,谓语中也常常单独采用过去分词表示被动意义。如:Turners wanted!(招聘车工!) ALL GOODS GREATLY REDUCED!(各种货物大减价!) Trade agreements broken(贸易协定遭破坏)等等。

二、单独过去分词可以表示完成

由于过去分词作定语不用完成式,表示完成意义的定语自然采用单独过去分词来表达。如:

sweep the fallen leaves=sweep the leaves that have fallen扫落叶

a developed country=a country that has developed发达国家

三、单独过去分词可以表示被动+完成

所谓单独过去分词表示被动+完成,即过去分词可以独立表示完成意义的被动语态。通常出现在以下方面:

1.过去分词在定语中表示被动+完成

1) He told us of the great wrong done to him.=He told us of the great wrong which had been done to him.他给我们讲了他所遭受的巨大冤屈。

2)Did you accept the invitation (that had been) given by the tour guide? 你接受导游所给的邀请了吗?

2.过去分词在with复合结构中表示被动+完成

With the homework finished, I went out for a walk.=When the homework was/had been finished, I went out….作业做完之后,我出去散了会儿步。

3. 过去分词在状语中表示被动+完成

Weakened by the successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe. =As the bridge had been weakened by successive storms, it was no longer safe.由于遭到接二连三暴风雨的破坏,这桥已经不安全了。

值得一提的是,分词作状语,如果强调该动作已经完成,还是需要采用相应语态的完成式形式;过去分词作定语,如果强调该动作正在发生,则用being+过去分词。分别举例如下:

1)Having corrected the students’ homework, he handed it out.他将学生的作业改完之后就发下去了。

2)Having been bitten twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog up.由于被狗咬过两次,邮递员要我们把狗拴起来,要不就不给我们送信。

3)Have you noticed the bridge being built there?=Have you noticed the bridge which is being built there?你注意到了那儿正在修的那座桥吗?

附练习:

1. In Shishou of Hubei, the soldiers saved many important deer ____ milu deer.

A. call B. called C. is called D. which calls

2. The sun was shining brightly, ________ everything there _______ more beautiful.

A. making ; look B. to make ; looked C. and made ; looking D. and making ; be looked

3. Greatly _____ as a leading teacher, he was invited to attend the conference.

A. respect B. respected C. respecting D. being respected

4. On the grass lay an old man, with his hands _____ under his head and his eyes _____ at the blue sky.

A. crossing; staring B. crossed; stared C. crossed; staring D. crossing; stared

5. The students ____ to the office got their ____ papers, and most of them did well in the test.

A. invited; correct B. had been invited; corrected

C. invited; corrected D. having been invited; corrected

6. _____ nice, the food has a good sale.

A. Having been tasted B. Tasted C. Tasting D. Being tasted

7. Get the car thoroughly _______; I want to be free from worry on the trip.

A. check B. checked C. checking D. to be checked

8. At six o’clock in the evening, when a cat ran through a truck it narrowly escaped _______ over.

A. running B. to be run C. from running D. being run

9. The room, although ____ to be kept locked, was often left open.

A. ought B. supposed C. had D. should

10. He was found _____ at the desk, _____ something important.

A. seating; writing B. seated; wrote C. seated; writing D. seating; wrote

11. You’re requested to be present at the English evening _____ in our school.

A. hold B. held C. holding D. to be held

12. The man got the letter _____ with the car ____ at the gate.

A. typed; waiting B. typing; waited C. typed; waited D. typing; waiting

13. _____ in the war was very common at that time.

A. Killed B. Killing C. Be killed D. Being killed

14. _____ the bad news, they wore a _____ look on their faces.

A. Heard; worried B. Hearing; worried C. Hearing; worrying D. Heard; worrying

15. The books _____ next month are very well _____, and they’re really well worth reading.

A. published; written B. publishing; writing; C. to be published; writing; D. to be published; written

16. After _____ to hospital, the _____ were operated on in no time.

A. sending; injured B. sent; injured C. being sent; injured D. sending; injuring

17. When the woman saw the good result, she let out an _____ cry of joy, _____ like a lovely girl.

A. excited; jumping B. exciting; jumping C. excited; jumped D. exciting; jumped

18. _____ on top of the tower, the city looks extremely splendid.

A. See B. To see C. Seeing D. Seen

19. When he entered the room, he found the windows open and something _____.

A. missed B. robbed C. stolen D. disappeared

20. The speaker stood there talking, _____ by the journalists _____ the event.

A. surrounded; covered B. surrounded; covering C. surrounding; covered D. surrounding; covering

(Key: BABCC CBDBC DADBD CADCB)

主要参考文献:

A.J.Thomson, A.V. Martinet: 《牛津实用英语语法》(第四版),外语教学与研究出版社,牛津大学出版社,1998年。

张道真:《英语常用动词用法词典》,上海译文出版社,1981年。

注:该文曾发表于《新高考》2004年第一期

赵国强

[摘 要] 英语听力训练过去主要采用听材料--对答案的简单套路,学生的实际应用能力难以充分提高和发展。本文力求运用现代教育理论,拟就英语听力训练中语言内容的真实性和语言自身的真实性等原则及策略作简要阐述。

[关键词] 听力训练 交际能力 应用策略

On Principles and Strategy of Listening Practice

Zhao Guoqiang

(Shenzhen Middle School, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518101 China)

Abstract: Listening practice used to follow the simple approach of listening to the materials repeatedly, and it was hard for students to develop their applicative competence. The purpose of the paper is, based on modern linguistic and teaching theories, to show the principles of real content and real utterances as well as strategy in listening practice.

Key words: listening practice; communicative competence; applicative strategy

传统的英语听力教学,教师大都只是采用听录音材料--对答案--再听录音材料这一简单模式,英语作为一种交际工具的功能往往被忽视。编写和录制的听力材料,往往语言过于正式,范围偏于狭隘,缺少真实交际场合下的语言特点,不利于学生在现实生活中与英美人士正常交流和对会话体的诸多特征作真正的认识和了解。该模式下的听力教学,教师教得尴尬,学生学得心烦。英语听力训练中的真实性原则,强调的是语言内容的真实性和语言自身的真实性。围绕真实语用,结合自身实践,笔者拟就听力训练中的原则与策略作简要阐述。

一、听力训练中的原则及其应用

1.语言内容的真实性原则及其应用

真实交际场合下的话语不同于书面语式的录音材料。书面语式的录音材料在丧失内容真实性的同时也往往丧失了语言的真实性,即丧失了口语的特点。真实的语言材料有正式和非正式之分。正式的有新闻、学术报告等,非正式的有购物、求医、问路、打电话等。这样的语言材料具有语音系统变化大,冗余信息多、语法结构随意等特征。使用真实的听力材料,就是要让学生熟悉和理解自然语言中的大量冗余信息,使他们在听的过程中不至于受这些无关信息的干扰,把注意力集中在真正传达意义的内容上。真实交际中谈话者的冗余话语常会出现省略(ellipses)、停顿(pause)、赘述(tautology)、重复(repetition)、咕哝(murmur)、纠错(correction)、言语支吾(hesitation)、起句失误(false starts)等现象,如反复出现You know, I mean, uh, and, well,等等 。这些方面在听力训练中均应有所涉及。收听收看英语新闻、选择《走遍美国》(Family Album, USA)、《走向未来》(Look Ahead)等真实性较强且富有时代特色的优秀教学片等,可为学生体验和熟知真实语言内容提供难得的素材。

为了在英语听力教学中坚持使用真实语言材料,教师首先应准备和发现源于真实交际中的听力材料及内容,并运用于课堂,使学生逐步适应真实话语的特点。

2. 语言自身的真实性原则及其应用

语言是文化的载体,具有丰富的文化内涵。不同文化背景的人们在进行跨语言交际时,由于文化或心理的差异往往出些差错,甚至严重影响交际的进行而产生相反的效果。因此,课堂交际中的言语(utterances)应该是真实和有效的。譬如,初次交谈时,教师适宜主动提出“Who is your monitor?”“What’s your name, can you tell it to the class/may I ask?”“Which do you prefer, English or geography?” “Which school were you in before you came to our school?”等等。同样几个问题,如果彼此熟悉后再给予提出,有效性和真实性便不复存在。既使见面之初,如果询问 “Are you a boy or a girl?” “Who is your English teacher?” 之类的问题,只是挂听说之名,图造作之嫌。语言自身的真实性,还体现在真实的人际关系等方面,如老师可以对学生说 “ You’d better stand up!(你给我站起来!)”,但如果学生对老师这样表达,结构虽然正确但不太得体,不是真实的语言。

听力训练中,教师应充分考虑真实的异国交际礼仪和习俗、话题的选择与禁忌等差异,努力让学生在习得语言的同时,了解西方国家的传统文化和习俗。

二、真实性原则下的听力训练策略

1.注重以激发性输入和输出的方式充分调动学生的听力热情

语言学家Krashen认为,语言技能的习得只有在下面几个条件下才能完成:(学习者明确的学习目的;(学习者有信心,自我感觉良好;(r)学习者焦虑水平低。当学习者充满忧虑和缺乏自信时,情感滤斗(effective filter)便很高,使信息无法接收。“激发性输入”(motivating input)是指真实有趣的语言材料,如名人轶事、原版影片等;“激发性输出”(motivating output)是指与学生密切相关或激发学生想象力的真实话题。听力训练中,应注重以激发性输入与激发性输出相结合的方式调动学生的激情(passion),沟通学生及师生之间存在的信息差,培养学生灵活运用语言的能力。适时适度地提供学生感兴趣的真实材料(如《魂断蓝桥》)和话题(如中美关系、上网技术),会使课堂交际更加活跃、真实、自然,继而实践激活学生兴趣这一意图。英语广播电视新闻读音清晰,语速标准,用词规范,而且时事性强,容易激发学生兴趣。教师精心从中选取与教材衔接的部分作为泛听材料,不仅让学生感到真切,还可以使他们开拓视野。比如,CCTV-4在2001年4月1日下午一时开始的一个小时的英语节目,从澳门基本法(Basic law in Macao)、美国的数字艺术(Digital art in USA)等新闻到《百年回眸》中的《时间的故事》、《上学的故事》和《健身的故事》,都是难易适中的真实听力材料。长期坚持观看,听力水平会出现质的飞跃。

2.集中训练和分散训练结合,将听力训练贯穿于整个教学过程

由于听力训练注意力高度集中,长时间集中训练容易使人产生疲劳。将听力训练贯穿于整个教学过程,一方面是良好的量的积累,另一方面,也是促使能力转换的有效手段。

1)结合单元内容,真实地呈现学生了解的重要事件和人物、时事和生活热点,并以此对学生进行潜移默化的理想和人文教育。结合Sports单元,介绍中国申办2008年奥运会的有关近况和英语听说水平的重要地位等;学习Disabilities单元,可以将张海迪、桑兰及学生身边自强不息的典型事例以及他们的过去、现在和将来等讲给学生听。

2)讲授单元对话课时,可以借助重点话题与学生展开真实交流。学习Country Music单元,可以在Country Road这一悠扬动听的歌声中介绍本单元有关的人和事,甚至可以利用课余时间教唱一两首英语经典歌曲;

3)在完成单元内容的基础上,适度挖掘学生感兴趣而教材中没涉及到的知识和背景。中学教材中,在不同环节安排了不同层次的英语名著名篇,这对于培养学生的鉴赏能力是大有裨益的。在学习A Tale of Two Cities单元时,学生很想也有必要了解Charles Dickens的有关情况。如果教师抓住这一契机,将这位文豪和Mark Twain 放在一起用英语做一番描述,并介绍他俩类似的身世,学生听得聚精会神,文学素质得以同步培养。还可将Lucie Manette作为中心线索,讲述她与其他人物的情感牵连,引导学生将其人物与真实的历史背景有机地联系起来。学生在听有趣故事情节的同时,还加深了对这篇名著的深层理解。

3.运用多种技巧,将听的技能与说、读、写有机地结合起来

听力属技能范畴。听说读写这四项技能并非孤立存在或毫无联系,说依赖于听,听不懂必然不会说,说也可促使听,训练有素的耳朵也为阅读和写作水平浓浓地平添了一笔。因此,加大听力训练力度,并以此促进各项技能的更好发展,正越来越得到重视。学习Summer Holiday单元之前,教师可用英语真实地将自己的有关情况介绍给学生,以此增进友谊并让学生感受初次见面如何交流等文化习俗,并及时将独白(monologue)转为师生间的对话(dialogue)。在类似的语言框架之中,呈现 “How do you do?” “Nice to meet you.” “So do I.” “Let me introduce A to B.”等交际用语及for the first time, at the beginning of, in my opinion等词组或句型,学生在此基础上便很容易将本单元所要求掌握的新交际用语和句型与听力训练有机地结合起来,并自然过渡到My Summer Holiday之类的书面表达训练中去。

4.依托现代科技媒介,积极采用一切有利于提高英语听力的方法和手段

利用实物或图片等直观教具呈现新语言项目,显得真实、形象、可信; 实施多媒体教学,信息量大,而且能更好地刺激学生各种感官,激发学生的听说欲望;语音室主控台具有很多便于个别辅导和交际的功能,利用这些设置,教师可以更有效地因人制宜和因材施教。譬如:将一堂课切为两个部分,前半部分实施统一视听教学,后半部分开展分层训练。可选用两套不同的听力材料让学生自由选择,还可以开展师生或学生二人对话、小组讨论、自由辩论等活动; 在学习Disneyland和Charles Chaplin之际,制作一段作品穿插在多媒体教学中,兴趣盎然。有条件时,还可开辟英语角、英语广播电视等项目,或让学生参与外事活动。类似以上课堂内外和校园内外的环境衔接,可以给学生提供真实和广阔的学习乐园。近几年,我们坚持让学生自己编辑和播送校园英语广播节目,校园新闻(School News)、寰球采风(Around the World)等板块为学生创设了源源不断的英语听力氛围。

教师应从宏观角度,为学生提供全方位的听说环境。

5.抓住听力特点,培养科学的听力方法和技巧

在听语篇的过程中,人们很难也没有必要听懂每一个音节、单词或词组。因此,掌握听音技巧很有必要。听音之前,应让学生迅速浏览有关信息,如单词提示、问题设置等,以便预测所听内容和抓住相关重要信息; 听音过程中,应培养学生积极、轻松地投入到筛选、解码、重组等认识活动中去,学会去粗取精并根据前言后语进行推理和判断,从而获取所要信息。听力训练中,教师应采用视听结合、听说结合、听写结合等方式对学生进行全面训练。

6.注重积极的情感投入,充分考虑学生的非智力因素

积极的情感可以使人勇往直前。如果教师课堂上注重正面礼貌策略,真实而又积极地给予各种评价,可以调动学生的热情,实现快乐学习。当学生圆满完成任务之后,教师可以翘起大拇指惊喜地叫一声Wonderful!/Excellent!/ Well done!/You’re really clever等;师生在交际中遇到有争议的问题时,教师可以委婉地说“Maybe you’re right, but how do you find…?”“Shall we discuss it later?”之类的言语;学生出现错误时,教师可在指出错误后告诉学生: “This time you didn’t do as expected. I hope you’ll do better next time.”另外,学生个性差异的研究、过分紧张心理的排除及不良习惯的矫正等,都是听力教学中不可忽视的重要内容。

以上只是围绕听力训练中的真实性原则和策略展开一番论述。随着改革开放的不断深入,我国的对外交往日益频繁,英语作为一种交际工具的特征越来越明显,而现阶段高中英语听说教学的效果与形势要求的矛盾越发突出起来。如何提高高中阶段英语听说训练的效果,正越来越受到教育者的高度重视。强化听力训练和技巧,让学生听有所得,学有所用,是摆在我们教育工作者面前的重要课题。

参考文献

[1] Ellis R. Understanding Second Language Acquisition [M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

[2] 朱 纯. 外语教学心理学[M]. 上海外语教育出版社. 1994, 9(1).

[3] 马寅初, 黄金岩. 实用英语教学论[M]. 湖南师范大学出版社. 1992, 8(1)

[4] 高 升. 对高考外语听力命题中若干问题的探讨[J]. 中小学外语教学,2001(1):8-11.

该文曾发表于《河南教育》2001年第6期

赵国强

(湖北宜昌三峡高中, 湖北宜昌 443100)

[摘 要] 长期以来,英语听说训练主要沿用鹦鹉学舌式的摹仿或模拟的教学模式,学生的应用能力难以提高和发展。本文力图运用现代教育理论,围绕英语听说训练中的真实交际原则,从语言材料的真实性、语言自身的真实性、语言环境的真实性以及学生情感的真实性等方面作简要阐述。

[关键词] 听说训练 真实交际 应用能力

Application of Real Communicative Principle

in Aural-oral Practice

Zhao Guoqiang

(Yichang Sanxia Senior Middle School, Yichang, Hubei 443100)

Abstract: Aural-oral practice has long followed the approach of imitation and it used to be hard for students to develop their applicative competence. The purpose of the paper is, based on modern linguistic and teaching theories, to show the importance of real materials, real utterances,real environment and real strategy in aural-oral practice.

Key words: Aural-oral practice; real communication; applicative competence

引言

传统的英语教学,沿用的是以语法翻译法为主的教学模式。该模式以教师为中心,注重讲解和传授语言,即使偶尔开展口语教学,亦偏重于只听不说或只说不听的单一畸形训练模式。学生熟知语法、词汇和语言材料,听说能力却相当滞后,很可能除了能用最简单的应答和招呼语之外,难以用得体的语言真实地表达思想和进行交际,即学生所接受的是“哑巴式英语”。早在20世纪20年代,英国帕尔默(Palmer)等人就提出了情景教学法(Situational Language Teaching), 它强调学习英语的积极性,重视真实的交际情景。八十年代后,各种在现代语言学、心理学、教育学等相关学科理论指导下的新兴教学方法不断生成和发展,促使了学生交际能力、语用能力的培养和形成。交际能力的培养是英语教学的最终目的。围绕这一目的,教师应着力使学生将基础知识转化为语言技能,并发展成交际能力。听说读写这四项技能相辅相成。因此,培养学生的听说能力,正被越来越广泛地使用。

英语听说训练中的真实性原则,强调的是语言材料的真实性、语言自身的真实性、语言环境的真实性和学生情感的真实性,使学生以喜闻乐见的方式去真实地体验、感受和运用语言,达到听有所得、学以致用的目的。围绕这一原则,结合自身实践,笔者现就以下四个方面作简要阐述。

一、语言材料的真实性原则及应用

许多沿用的听力训练大都采用的是男女对读的录音材料,语言过于正式,范围过于狭隘,缺少真实语言特点,不利于学生在现实生活中与英美人士正常交流。人们反对象书本一样讲话,因此,不应将任何书面材料都直接用于口语训练之中,而应选择真实性的听说语言材料。 真实的语言材料有正式和非正式之分。正式的有新闻、学术报告等,非正式的有购物、求医、问路、打电话等。缺乏真实材料的听力训练,在丧失内容真实性的同时也往往丧失了语言的真实性,即丧失了口语的特点。而真实语言材料具有语音系统变化大,冗余信息多、语法结构随意等特征。使用真实的听力材料,就是要让学生熟悉和理解自然语言中的大量冗余信息,使他们在筛选、解码、重组等认识活动中学会去粗取精并根据前言后语进行推理和判断,从而获取所要信息。 真实交际中谈话者的冗余话语常会出现赘述(tautology)、省略(ellipsis)、停顿(pause)、重复(repetition)、咕哝(murmur)、纠错(correction)、言语支吾(hesitation)、起句失误(false starts)等现象,如反复出现You know, I mean, uh, and, well, yeah等等。听说材料中应对类似现象有所涉及。选择《走遍美国》(Family Album, USA)等真实性较强且富有时代特色的优秀教学片,为学生体验和熟知真实语言内容提供了难得的素材。此外,英语广播电视新闻读音清晰,语速标准,用词规范,而且时事性强,容易激发学生兴趣。教师精心从中选取与教材衔接的部分作为泛听材料,不仅让学生感到真切,还可以使他们开拓视野。比如,CCTV-4在近期的英语节目中,从澳门基本法(Basic law in Macao)、数字艺术(Digital art)等新闻到《百年回眸》中的《时间的故事》、《上学的故事》和《健身的故事》,都是难易适中的真实听力材料。长期坚持观看,听力水平会出现质的飞跃。

有关说的真实材料也并不少见。热点话题为人们所关注,是难得的真实听说材料。利用课前五分钟,借助自由谈话(Free talk)等形式,实施热点口语交际。每项活动一般都侧重一个特定的话题或情景,譬如:节日花絮、名人轶事、重要事件等等。学校日常生活中,时常有留给老师向学生发布的信息,教师可以有效利用这一“特权”,将影讯、假期、学术报告、社会活动等学生关注的热点及时告诉他们。比如:借体检这一活动,教师在课前将有关事项作以下阐述:Tomorrow morning, you’ll have a medical examination. Do not have breakfast before you have your blood tested. Do not drink anything. In a word, never input. I’ll be expecting you at 7 o’clock sharp at the gate of the hospital. Don’t be late. 讲完之后,还可就时间、地点、事件乃至input/sharp在此处的含义等提出问题及时反馈。此时,学生唯恐答不上或听不懂,注意力特强,参与度极高。此外,常有意外情况出现在教学过程中,教师可以顺势展开课堂口语活动。如学生正聚精会神地听课,附近忽然一声炮响,学生受惊的同时,教学过程受到干扰。教师倒可来一小“插曲”给学生压惊:Oh, it really sounded terrible. What was it? (Also an earthquake, as we felt the earth was shaking.)The earthquake is a disaster to the world, to us human beings, more or less.又如:某学生听课之中突然打了喷嚏,大家等待老师作出反应,教师索性就“喷嚏”展开叙述:Oh, that’s a sneeze. Haven’t you heard, boys and girls? By the way, better use a handkerchief when you sneeze. I wonder if you’ve got a cold. If so, put on more clothes and take some medicine。学生行为在此得到矫正的同时,教学过程得以充实和完善。此外,教师还可顺手将眼前的茶杯、手表等物品作为真实的内容(real content)和真实的媒介(real media),巧妙地运用于交谈之中。在类似以上的听说教学中,不仅在教会学生如何说,更是在训练他们怎样去理解,去思考该说些什么和做些什么。事实上,掌握了一定的词汇之后,如果能有效地运用交际策略(communication strategy),多数情况下可以保持交际的持续进行。当学生越来越多地生成外语时,他们的口头表达对其他同学也形成了自然的、可理解的输入。

为了在英语听说教学中坚持使用真实语言材料,教师应首先转变观念,准备和发现源于真实交际中的听力材料,并有意识地运用于课堂,使学生逐步适应真实话语的特点。

二、语言自身的真实性原则及应用

语言既是文化的载体,又是思维传播的媒体,具有丰富的文化内涵。不同文化背景的人们在进行跨语言交际时,由于文化或心理的差异往往出些差错,甚至严重影响交际的进行而产生相反的效果。因此,课堂交际中的言语(utterances)应该是真实和有效的。流利说话的能力不可能与生俱来,也很难在教学中立竿见影、一蹴而就,它需要通过一系列的输入、模仿、分析、记忆等各方面习得之后而自然形成,继而启动流利的话语。初始阶段的活动主要在于提供可理解的输入去发展听能; 到了高中,学生大都基本达到言语形成阶段,此时的口头表达则更为重要。学生的表达能力形成之后,教师的输入难度也应相应提高。单就肯定评价而言,对于高中生可以多采用Very good/OK以外的其它表达。如:Well said/done/written! Marvelous! Excellent!等等。在教学的各个环节,教师应给予学生足够的机会运用和发展已有的能力。譬如,新生刚入校,一方面对周围环境感到陌生和好奇,同时还可能受自我展示的驱使,出现英语口头交际中想说而不敢说、想说好而说不好等矛盾心理。此时此刻,正是师生融洽交流的良好时机。利用寒暄、介绍、道歉、赞扬等技巧启发学生开口说话,鼓励他们该出“口”时就出口,可以尽早摆脱外语学习中的“沉默期”,促使听说能力的形成。学习Summer Holiday单元之前,教师可用英语真实地将自己的有关情况介绍给学生,以此增进友谊和暗示初次见面如何交流等文化习俗,并及时将独白(monologue)转为师生间的对话(dialogue)。在类似的语言框架之中,呈现 “How do you do?” “Nice to meet you.” “So do I.” “Let me introduce A to B.”等交际用语及for the first time, at the beginning of, in my opinion等词组或句型,学生在此基础上就很容易且自然地运用本单元所要求掌握的新交际用语和句型,缩短交际距离。初次交谈时,教师适宜主动提出“Who is your monitor?”“What’s your name, can you tell it to the class/may I ask?”“Which do you prefer, English or geography?” “Which school were you in before you came to our school?”等等。同样几个问题,如果彼此熟悉后再给予提出,有效性和真实性便不复存在。既使见面之初,如果询问 “Are you a boy or a girl?” “Who is your English teacher?” 之类的问题,只是挂听说之名,图造作之嫌。

语言自身的真实性,还体现在真实的人际关系等方面,如老师可以对学生说 “ You’d better stand up!(你给我站起来!)”,但如果学生反过来说,结构虽然正确但不太得体,不具备真实语用的特点。在类似交际过程中,教师应充分考虑真实的异国交际礼仪和习俗、话题的选择与禁忌等差异,努力让学生在习得语言的同时,了解西方国家的传统文化和习俗。

三、语言环境的真实性原则及应用

长期以来,教师多注重的是营造课堂小环境方面,如背诵课文、朗读比赛等。加之受到母语环境的包围,这样的活动往往只是在课堂上昙花一现,学生的听说能力很难有效发展。教师应从宏观角度,把握语言环境的真实性,在课堂内外为学生创设良好的听说氛围。

习得(Acquisition)即无意中获得,是口语教学的核心,它不同于自觉的语法学习或认知学习。因此,听说教学中的每项活动、每个话题都必须有意义、有兴趣,使学生的注意集中在活动的内容而不是形式上。听说训练中的一个常用教学模式是课堂提问。提问本身不是目的,而是启发学生思维的手段,应当变换方式、适可而止; 提出的关键问题应给学生一定时间思考、准备和讨论。除了“教师问、学生答”之外,还可采用“学生问、学生答”、“学生问、教师答”或“讨论式问答”等模式实施课堂口语活动。譬如在谈及未来生活(Life in the Future)这一话题时,教师可以采用类似以下独白:Can you imagine what our life will be like tomorrow? When we do some shopping, we can merely stay at home waiting. If we are ill, we won’t have to go to a doctor or a nurse. Can you guess how?类似以上方式,能够诱发学生展开想象和提出问题; 中学教材中,有很多课文内容与现实生活紧密联系的话题,如:求职(Jobs)、旅行(Travel)、急救(First Aid)、体育(Sports)等等。教师可以将这些内容活化为实际,让学生就其充分发表看法和见解,趣化听说教学。

听说教学中,教师还可以开展丰富多彩的小组活动,营造真实的语言环境。语言学家认为:“小组活动最主要的价值在于能够通过讨论、会话激发自然的语言活动。”坚持多开展小组口语活动,能够帮助学生消除紧张感、拘谨感和焦虑感,做到畅所欲言。活动结构可以分两人组、多人组、男女组、正反方组等等,内容上可以结合教材或社会热点(如北京申奥等)展开讨论或自由辩论。这样的活动,能让学生谈得尽兴、听得过瘾,还可使课堂交际更加活跃、真实、自然。小组讨论中,可以是“舌战”型,也可以是“出谋划策”型等等,注意变换方式和精选话题,让学生各抒己见、各显其能。小组活动也可采用角色扮演、故事复述、“记者”采访、画面解说、即兴演讲等形式。小组发言中,可安排或推举一名“主席”或纠错人负责记录和指出错误,进行评价和总结。语音室主控台具有很多便于个别辅导和交际的功能,利用这些设置,教师可以更有效地因人制宜和因材施教。譬如:将一堂课切为两个部分,前半部分实施统一视听教学,后半部分开展分层训练。可选用两套不同的听力材料让学生自由选择,还可以开展师生或学生二人对话、小组讨论、自由辩论等活动。实施多媒体教学,信息量大,而且能更好地刺激学生各种感官,激发学生的听说欲望;有条件时,还可以开辟英语角、英语广播电视等项目,或让学生参与外事活动。类似以上课堂内外和校园内外的环境衔接,可以给学生提供真实和广阔的学习乐园。近几年,我们坚持让学生自己编辑和播送校园英语节目,校园新闻(School News)、环球采风(Around the World)等板块为学生提供了源源不断的真实英语语言环境。此外,我们还借美国、加拿大和澳大利亚代表团访问我校之机,让学生参与接待外宾和担任导游,请外宾与学生直接交谈、参加联欢或作学术报告等,学生都急于想知道如何交际和恰到好处地将交流引向深入。抓住这样的契机,我们在每次活动之前都要给学生举办英美习俗、文化差异等专题讲座,学生听得投入、用得及时,英语听说水平受到外宾的好评,英语课外活动在校园掀起了一阵阵热旋风。

教师应该尽量给学生提供真实的语言环境,让他们有话可说、有用武之地,并以此提高他们的跨文化交际能力。

四、学生情感的真实性原则及应用

歌德曾说过:没有兴趣则没有记忆。兴趣是最好的老师。因此,教师应充分考虑学生的真实情感和需求,以激发性输入(motivating input)与激发性输出(motivating output)相结合的方式,调动学生的激情(passion),沟通学生及师生之间存在的信息差,培养学生灵活运用语言的能力。这里所说的“激发性输入”是指真实有趣的语言材料,如名人轶事、原版影片等;“激发性输出”是指与学生密切相关或激发学生想象力的真实话题。听说训练中,适时适度地提供学生感兴趣的真实材料(如《魂断蓝桥》)和话题(如中美关系、上网技术),会让他们有听得过瘾、谈得拢来之感,从而使课堂交际更加活跃、真实、自然,继而实践激活学生兴趣这一意图。由于听力训练注意力高度集中,长时间集中训练容易使人产生疲劳。将听力训练贯穿于整个教学过程,一方面是良好的量的积累,另一方面,也是促使能力转换、调理学生情感的有效手段。

1.上对话课,可以借助重点话题与学生展开真实交流。学习Country Music单元,可以在Country Road的歌曲中进入新课,甚至可以利用课余时间教唱一两首英语经典歌曲;同时,还可尽量活化教材,开展各种趣味活动。结合《项链》(The Necklace)和《威尼斯商人》( The Merchant of Venice)等课本剧,鼓励学生分小组自编自演,并在学生中产生评委就其表演进行颁奖和评价就是一种成功的尝试。在这样的活动中,学生提台词、编动作、借道具,相互切磋、精诚合作、争先恐后、全员参与,美育得以有机渗透,英语交际氛围给予自然营造。此外,做游戏、学生间的相互采访等即兴表演也是在听说活动中着力夯实基础的有效途径。学习课本材料后,教师还可以安排学生复述、改编、续编等口语活动。比如拟定《项链》中的Mathilde还清债后时隔十年与老朋友再度相逢这一情景,让学生展开想象和讨论。面对这样的话题,学生七嘴八舌,口语有效锻炼的同时,创造力也得以充分培养。为避免打断学生思维的连贯性,除了明显的语义错误需要及时纠正,教师应尽量让学生说完之后再适度纠错。纠错中应注意礼貌策略,重视学生的参与热情,善于捕捉表达中的闪光点,避免挫伤学生说的欲望。

2. 利用课前五分钟,通过自由谈话(Free talk)等活动,开展听说交际活动。该活动中,学生通过Duty report; Say me, say you等话题,将身边的人和事讲给同学们听,在听说中发现自信和成就。大家愿意听、乐于说,效果极佳。

3.结合单元内容,真实地呈现学生了解的重要事件和人物、时事和生活热点,并借此对学生进行理想和人文教育。结合Sports单元,介绍中国申办2008年奥运会的有关近况和英语水平的重要影响等;学习Disabilities单元,可以将张海迪、桑兰及学生身边自强不息的典型事例讲述给学生。把教材内容活化为实际生活,同时又能把实际生活引入教学过程之中并启迪学生对人生的感悟。

4.在完成单元内容的基础上,适度挖掘学生感兴趣而教材中没涉及到的知识和背景。中学英语教材中,编排了不同类型的名著名篇,这对于培养学生的文化底蕴和鉴赏能力是大有裨益的。反之,如果仅是就课论课,很难达到理想的效果。在学习A Tale of Two Cities单元时,学生急欲了解Charles Dickens的有关情况。如果教师抓住这一契机,将这位文豪和Mark Twain 放在一起用英语做一番描述,并介绍他俩类似的身世,学生听得聚精会神,听力和文学素质得以同步培养,同时也可感悟到“自古雄才多磨难”等人生哲理。讲述这篇故事,以Lucie Manette为中心线索,讲述她与其他人物的情感牵连,引导学生将其人物与真实的历史背景有机地联系起来。学生在听有趣故事情节的同时,还加深了对这篇名著的深层理解。在学习Disneyland和Charles Chaplin之际,制作一段作品穿插在多媒体教学中,兴趣盎然。

5.适时地就交际的过程给予真实的评价。积极的情感可以使人勇往直前。如果教师课堂上注重正面礼貌策略,真实而又积极地给予各种评价,可以调动学生的热情,实现快乐学习。当学生圆满完成任务之后,教师可以翘起大拇指惊喜地叫一声Wonderful!/Excellent!/ Well done!/You’re really clever等;师生在交际中遇到有争议的问题时,教师可以委婉地说“Maybe you’re right, but how do you find…?”“Shall we discuss it later?”之类的言语;学生出现错误时,教师可在指出错误后告诉学生: “This time you didn’t do as expected. I hope you’ll do better next time.”

英语学习中,由于学生的基础、环境以及家庭背景等方面各有不同,他们的学习兴趣、目的和动机亦存在一定差异。教师应充分考虑学生实际,把握不同学生的个体特点,因人制宜、因材施教。如对单亲家庭的学生,交谈中应尽量回避父母话题; 对内向型或基础较差的学生,交谈中应从其感兴趣的简单话题入手,鼓励他们积极投身于各项口语活动; 对打算出国的学生,可主动与他们畅谈异国风情、文化习俗; 对家人或本人生病的学生,可询问原因、表达关爱和同情,等等。

结语

随着对外经济文化交流的不断发展,口头交际能力愈来愈受到重视。如何灵活运用现代化的教学方法,紧密结合我国教学实际,有效提高学生的英语交际能力,是摆在教师面前的重要课题。英语口语教学是一项系统工程,面对不同的学习对象和环境,还是应该因人制宜、因事制宜、因时制宜、因地制宜,兼收并蓄,博采众长。围绕听说教学中的真实性原则,教师应把握学生的不同特点,采用视听结合、听说结合、听写结合等方式对学生进行全面训练,将交际教学力求落实在每个学生和每个环节。

参考文献

[1] Ellis R. Understanding Second Language Acquisition [M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1985.

[2] 朱 纯. 外语教学心理学[M]. 上海外语教育出版社. 1994,9(1).

[3] 马寅初, 黄金岩. 实用英语教学论[M]. 湖南师范大学出版社. 1992,8(1).

[4] 高 升. 对高考外语听力命题中若干问题的探讨[J]. 中小学外语教学,2001(1):8-11.

[5] 刘国忠. 对听力教学模式的思考[J]. 外语电化教学,2000(4).

该文曾发表于《中小学英语教学与研究》2001年第4期(略有改动)

书 面 表 达 基 本 应 对 策 略

深圳市宝安中学 赵国强

【摘要】高考英语试题中的书面表达是最能检验学生语言交际能力和语言知识活用能力的一个板块,但很多考生在写的方面仍不尽人意,得分率往往低于试卷的其它部分。而今后这种注重考查考生书面表达能力的主观性试题还要加大份量,注重学生的写同样刻不容缓。本文拟就高考试题的走向以及考生容易出现的问题作一简单分析,并提出考生在学习和考试中应该具备的基本应对策略。

【关键词】书面表达 高考 应对策略

书面表达是高考英语试题中最能检验学生语言交际能力和语言知识活用能力的一个板块。综观历年高考,学生的听读技能在逐年提高,但很多考生在写的方面仍处于停滞不前状态,甚至对书面表达试题感到手足无措,致使近几年高考的书面表达得分率多低于试卷的其它部分。不少学生认为,书面表达是“可得分但拿不到高分”的试题,误以为写作水平的提高无非在于多写几篇,他们没有用英语写日记、记笔记的习惯,写作时常用中文构思再译成英文,忽视英语句子结构和基本句型,很少找范文进行仿写,写作后自己连看也不看一眼,更不用说去字斟句酌了。相当多的考生虽能基本上表达出所给内容,但文章往往矫揉造作,要么漏掉部分要点,甚至曲解提示内容,如将price误写成prize等,让人啼笑皆非。书面表达有别于真正意义上的写作,它旨在考查考生用英语以书面形式传递信息进行交际的能力,即用文字准确表达出所给的信息内容。根据新大纲的要求和英语测试的发展趋势,今后这种注重考查考生书面表达能力的主观性试题还要加大份量,这对提高学生综合运用英语的能力将具有良好的导向作用。

高考书面表达的形式都是提示类作文(guided writing),即要求考生根据提供一定的情景内容,在三十分钟内写一篇一百词左右的短文。表达的最高要求是:语言基本无误,行文连贯,表达清楚。试题对写作目的、对象、时地、体裁、内容及词数等都有明确规定,命题方式往往有图画、图表、提纲、短文提示等。体裁注重以应用文为主、记叙文为辅。题材注意结合中学生学习英语的实际水平,尽量贴近日常生活,以提供考生自由表达的空间。近几年的书面表达多为看图或根据中文图表提示写出短文。(见附表)

年份 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002

体裁 看图

写日记 看图

写短文 广播

通 知 看图

写 信 求职信 看图描述故事 看图

写日记 看图

写信 看图

写报告 看图表写信 看图表

写信

(一)看图写话题:

该题型的特点是根据试题提供的一组图画及提示,写出若干句语境相符、语法正确、意思连贯的句子。考生必须首先认真审图,抓住图中所表达的中心内容,列出提纲或拟个腹稿,理清思路,然后抓住要点分段表述,写出一篇脉络清晰、层次分明、文理通顺、意思连贯的故事或短文。

NMET 2000的高考书面表达部分题目是这样的:“假设你是李华,在美国探亲,2000年2月8日清晨,你目击了一起交通事故。警察局让你写一份材料,报告当时所见情况,请根据图画写出报告,词数100左右,结尾已为你写好。”面对这类试题,考生首先应认真看懂图片所表达的意思,根据图画细节内容进行分析、比较,整理出几个要点,再根据这些要点决定要采用的人称、体裁和语言形式等。如:报告的开头不宜写成At 7:15, I was…,而应采用以下范文方式展开。审题后,确定以下6个要点: (附图)

(1)2000年2月8日发生了一起交通事故;

(2)我走在公园路;

(3)一位老人从街的另一边公园里出来;

(4)一辆黄车开过来在公园路转弯;

(5)黄车撞倒了老人并向西开跑;

(6)我记住了车牌号是AC864,并送老人去医院。

再对照各图,将以上要点合为一体,要注意检查语法是否正确,措辞是否恰当,表达是否符合英语习惯,等等。在串联成文时注意用好适当的连接词和副词。如:以下范文中,连词and的使用达到3次,when, while, then ,but 各l次。另外,NMET 97范文中使用连词and达到5次,NMET 98使用连词and达到3次,NMET 99使用连词and达到4次。(附:NMET 2000书面表达范文)

It was 7:15 on the morning of February 8,2000. I was walking along Park Road towards the east when an elderly man came out of the park on the other side of the street.Then I saw a yellow car drive up Third Street and make a right turn into Park Road.The next moment the car hit the man while he was crossing the road.He fell with a cry. The car didn't stop but drove at great speed heading west. I noticed the driver was young woman and the plate number was AC864.About two minutes later I stopped a passing car and took the old man to the nearest hospital.

(二)文字提示题:这是以文字提纲形式提供情景的书面表达题,该题型的特点是根据中(英)文提示,要求考生认真审读,选准选全要点,用英文完成书面表达任务。考生必须根据提示内容,先确定所写的文体和格式,再根据提示确定所要表达的要点,最后运用自己所掌握的句型和词语知识,写出一篇上下连贯通顺、符合提示要求的短文。这类试题考查的是根据提示写出通知、书信、日记、人物或地点介绍等,以考查考生掌握所学文体的基本格式。考生必须具备一定的组材能力,将零散的文字提示重组成脉络清晰、层次分明的短文。2002年高考的书面表达题是要求考生给某英语报社写一封信就学生参与的由报社组织的“公园要不要收门票”的讨论结果加以说明。题目要求明确,只要写明60%的同学认为不应收门票、40%的同学认为应收门票但票价不宜过高及双方各自的理由就足够了。但很多考生的得分并不理想,追其原因,除了篇章欠连贯,时态、句型、结构等方面的问题,是得不了高分的直接原因。

书面表达中最大的问题是语言错误太多,因此,书面表达复习迎考首先要夯实词汇和语法等基础。历届高考书面表达题要求的句式基本以简单句为主,从所用的句式及词汇方面看,80%以上是初中课本中所出现的。因此,只要夯实语言基础知识,创造条件多练,在练中熟悉词汇,掌握句型,重视和巩固知识的积累,真正重视了主谓结构、系表结构、并列结构、强调结构等合理运用,产出优秀的书面表达就会水到渠成;同时可利用读过的材料,进行缩写、改写、扩写等练习,锻炼自己的书面表达能力,也可就书信、日记、通知、报道等应用文的写作,进行针对性的专项训练,还可找一些不同风格的短文进行仿写。要从写句子开始,然后组句成段,最后组段成文。做一些基础练习,可使高考书面表达的训练收到事半功倍的效果。另外, 通过做句型转换连词成句和一句多译等技巧练习,拓宽思路,开阔视野。加强写作训练,逐渐做到用英语思维和写作,还要扩大课外阅读,积累一定数量的警句,不断增强英语语感,以提高写作水平。

书面表达题中文字材料或画中所表现的一切并不要求考生都要表达出来,但漏说或未说清应该表达的内容又会失分。因此,要点的合理取舍是表达的重要一环。譬如,在“给奶奶祝寿”和“交通事故报道”等书面表达中都可见时钟画面,什么时间就是考生必写的内容。在要点的处理方面,以下几点是考生应特别注意的:

一、审题万无一失。阅卷老师首先看的要是要点是否齐全准确。书面表达一般为5-6个要点:人物、地点、时间、事件、如何发生、结果怎样等,这些要点往往是缺一不可,更不得曲解,否则整篇文章就会出现偏差。如:NMET97高考书面表达的主题要点是“学生骑车违章带人”,有的考生居然将违章带人误解为放学后骑车带人学雷锋,照这一情景写下去,与题材本意背道而驰,能得多少分便不言而喻。

二、开头直截了当。有些考生总爱在开头拐弯抹角,拖泥带水。如在书信开头写一些“How are you? Although I don’t know you,…”类似的句子,徒劳无益甚至适得其反。好的开头是成功的一半,开门见山,尽快入题,时考生应当把握的一个原则。如果需要向编辑提出问题,一句Dear Editor的称呼之后,正文的第一句话就是I have a few questions to ask you,精悍准确,表达得体;再看NMET 98,写的是参观农场,开头就写Today we visited a farm.

三、表达得体流畅。在看懂图、文等提法的意思并找出要点后,要用所学过的语言知识来表达这些内容。用词不当,会影响文章内容的正确表达。要避免使用没有把握的词语和结构,更不要刻意追求美丽的词藻,这样往往会弄巧成拙。要尽量用所学过的句型或词汇来得体地表达某一信息,避免用中文去思考。如:处理NMET97书面表达的“警察罚他们抓住下一个违章者”这一要点时,有的学生用He let/had us catch another offender.这种表达就没有He made us catch the next offender.得体。因为本意是违章被罚,站在路边抓其他违章者一事带有强制性质,用let或have等词语意太轻,而make一词正合题意。再如NMET 98书面表达是:5月3日,你参观了一个农场,请根据图画用英语写一篇日记。拿到试题后,应完成以下步骤:

(1) 审题:体裁-日记;时间-5月3日;天气-晴(从图画中的太阳得出)

(2) 要点:A:集合、出发;B:到达;C:参加;D:野餐:E:娱乐;F:告别

(3) 单句表达:

A. Early in the morning we met at the school gate and went to the farm together.

B. When we arrived, the workers there gave us a warm welcome.

C. The head of the farm showed us around the farm.

D. At noon we had a picnic in the sun.

E. We had great fun staying together singing and dancing, telling stories and jokes.

F. We said goodbye to the workers there.

(4) 连句成篇:

Today we visited a farm. Early in the morning we met at the school gate and went to the farm together. When we arrived, the workers there gave us a warm welcome. The head of the farm showed us around the farm. At noon we had a picnic in the sun. We had great fun staying together singing and dancing, telling stories and jokes. Two of us even played chess. The time passed quickly. Before we knew it, we had to say goodbye to the workers there.

三、时态句式准确。日记或故事性的文章,一般应使用过去时态,且前后一致。说明性的文章,大体应使用一般现在时态。在很有把握的情况下,用一两句复合句(如状语从句或定语从句)。如果做不到这一点,还不如简单句。在表达时句子宜短不宜长,应慎用分词或复合句,对拿不准的表达,只要不改变原意,用自己最熟悉、最有把握的词语和句型将题中所规定的内容要点加以表达,同样可以达到理想的效果。如:我们完全可以将上文中的The workers there gave us a warm welcome.表达成The farm workers warmly welcomed us. 或The people on the farm received us warmly等。

另举几例:

例1 他8岁进广东省跳水队。(MET91)

At the age of eight, he joined/entered/became a member of/was accepted as a member of the diving team of Guangdong Province.

例2 (晚会)于8月15日,星期六,晚7:30举行。(NMET94)

The student union is going to hold a party on Saturday evening, August 15. It will begin at 7:30 p. party is to be held on Saturday, August 15 by the student union, which/and it will begin at half past seven in the evening.

例3  我哥哥骑车带我去电影院。(NMET97第一幅图)

The other day/A few days ago my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle. My brother was riding with me sitting on the seat behind.

例4 清早集合/出发参观。(NMET98)

Today early in the morning we met at the school gate and went to visit a farm.

例5 1988年(张各庄)成立本村小学。(MET90)

A. Until 1988 Zhang Ge Zhuang had no school of its own.

B. In 1988, Zhang Ge Zhuang began to have its own school.

C. There was no school in Zhuang Ge Zhuang until 1988.

D. No school had ever been built in Zhang Ge Zhuang until 1988.

E. Zhang Ge Zhuang set up its own school in 1988.

例6 (在原操场上)新建了一座图书馆。(NMET 99)

A.On the other side, where the playground used to be, now stands another new building-our library.

B. Another new building-our library has been built on the other side, where the playground used to be.

C. Another new building-our library has been built on the old playground.

D. Another new building-our library stands on the other side, where there was a playground three ago.

四、结尾自然有力。文章结尾好坏和有无,直接影响考生成绩,好的结尾与好的开头一样举足轻重。结尾既不能拉杂,也不能草率,要干净利落、恰当得体。(附:高考书面表达的部分结束语)

NMET 1992:At four o’clock, we said goodbye and set off for home.

NMET 1993 :It was our brave Ah Fu who had saved my little sister.

NMET 1999 :I hope you come and see for yourself some day.

NMET 2000 :About two minutes later I stopped a passing car and took the old man to the nearest hospital.

需要强调的是,完稿后一定要通读一两遍,这是很多考生容易忽视的一点。在这个过程中,你可能会发现一些新的问题。如先后顺序是否对路;表达是否全面;前后时态是否呼应,等等。

总之,做好书面表达题,需要做到内容切题,要点明确,文理通顺,语言正确,篇幅适中,开门见山,结尾自然。

注:该文曾发表于《学生双语报》2003年2月

试 论 真 实 交 际 在 英 语 教 学 中 的 运 用

易仁荣 朱 立 杨年仲 赵国强(执笔)

中学英语教学大纲明确提出:英语课是一门实践性很强的工具课。在英语教学中要努力使基础知识转化为语言技能,并发展成运用语言进行交际的能力。围绕培养学生在口头上和笔头上初步运用英语进行交际的能力这一指导思想,交际法教学便成为英语教学界所共识及共求的教学途径。鲁子问倡导的动态真实教学原则,要求创造性地运用新的教学方法和技巧,培养学生在真实语境为真实语用目的而运用真实英语进行口头和书面的真实交际能力。换言之,就是以不断调整和变化的动态,着眼于教学的真实性,尤其是交际的真实性,实施并完成教学任务。

真实交际符合语言教学的本质规律和目的,使教学从“填鸭式”满堂灌的枯燥乏味的模式中摆脱出来,以喜闻乐见的方式让学生去真实地体验、感受和运用语言,达到学而不厌、学以致用的效果。真实交际在英语教学中具有很强的可操作性和实用性,现结合我们的教学活动,谈谈体会和作法。

一、 真实交际要充分考虑学生的实际现状与需求

运用交际实施教学的基础是学生之间以及师生之间存在的信息差。教师必须充分考虑学生各方面的实际,在这一交流中通过相互交流,沟通信息差,自然呈现新语言项目和培养学生运用语言的能力。学生在英语学习方面的实际现状与需求大体上包括:

1. 学习基础的不平衡性;

2. 学习动机、目的和性格的差异性;

3. 区域和家庭背景的独特性;

4. 学习兴趣和需要的强弱性;

5. 学生已成习惯的教育、教学接受方式和思维模式;

6. 学生各自沿用的学习方法和技巧;

7.学习、社会环境及与涉及学生个人相关的其它因素。

在充分考虑以上各方面实际的基础上,教师便可以把握住不同学生的不同特点,有针对性地提出不同的问题。譬如:对于单亲家庭的学生,交际中教师应尽量回避其父母的话题;对于有海外关系或准备出国的学生,可以主动与其交流异国风情或习俗;对于英语基础较差的学生,交际时多从该生感兴趣的较简单话题入手,鼓励他们动口和动手,并在交谈中尽可能宽容其语言错误,及时适度地给予肯定或褒奖,等等。

二、 真实交际要有激活学生兴趣的兴奋点

兴趣是最好的老师。歌德也曾说过:没有兴趣则没有记忆。因此,英语教学要始终注重激发学生的passion。真实交际活动的开展是激活学生兴趣的重要途径。我们从以下诸多方面去实践过这一意图。

1.讲授单元对话课时,借助重点话题与学生展开真实交流。

学生刚进入高中时,或多或少对周围环境感到陌生和好奇,此时此刻,正是师生融洽交流的良好时机,学习Summer Holiday单元之前,教师用英语真实地将自己的有关情况介绍给学生,以此增进友谊并让学生感受初次见面如何交流的文化习俗,并及时将独白转为师生间的对话。在类似的语言框架之中,呈现 “How do you do?” “Nice to meet you.” “So do I.” “Let me introduce A to B.”等交际用语及for the first time, at the beginning of, in my opinion等词组或句型,学生在此基础上就很容易且自然地运用本单元所要求掌握的新交际用语和句型,进行自我介绍和畅谈假期生活。学习Country Music单元时,可以在悠扬动听的Country Road这一歌声中介绍本单元有关的人和事,甚至可以利用课余时间教会学生一两首英语经典歌曲;讲授China Daily单元,选择若干该报纸作为小奖品即兴发给学生,此时的这份普通报纸在学生眼中会魅力无穷、大放异彩;学习Computer之时,教师可以选择几册精美的PC(《个人电脑》)杂志,或者干脆将联想广告录音或录像播放给学生以实施快乐教学,短短几秒钟会有意想不到的效果。当然,做游戏、学生间的相互采访等喜闻乐见的活动也是在交际教学中着力夯实基础的有效途径。

2.结合单元内容,有机地将学生身边的重要事件和人物、时事和生活热点给予呈现,并以此对学生进行潜移默化的理想和人生教育。学习Disabilities这一单元之前或之中,可以谈张海迪、桑兰及学生身边自强不息的典型事迹以及他们的过去、现在和将来。把教材内容活化为实际生活,同时又能把实际生活引入教学过程之中并启迪学生对人生的感悟。

3.在完成单元内容的基础上,适度挖掘学生感兴趣而教材中没涉及到的知识和技能。中学教材中,在不同环节均安排了不同层次的英语名著名篇,这对于培养学生的鉴赏和欣赏能力是大有裨益的。但是,如果只是就课论课,很难达到理想的效果。在学习A Tale of Two Cities单元时,学生很想也有必要了解Charles Dickens这位文豪的有关情况。我们用了一点时间,将Mark Twain和Dickens放在一起用英语做一番介绍(注:因为他俩的身世大同小异),学生听得聚精会神,这样一来,既培养了学生的听力和文学素养,也让他们感受到“自古雄才多磨难”的道理。讲述这篇故事,以Lucie Manette为中心线索,讲述其他人物与她的情感牵连,学生将其人物与真实的历史背景有机地联系起来,加深了对这篇名著深入了解。在学习Disneyland和Charles Chaplin之际,制作一段作品穿插在多媒体教学中,学生眼界大开。结合The Necklace和 The Merchant of Venice等课本剧,鼓励学生采用课本中的台词或改写后自编自演,并让学生自己组织评委会就其表演进行评价。学生在这样的活动前后,想的是英语,练的是英语,大家互帮互学,都在为表演而拧成一股绳,兴趣盎然之情景不亦乐呼?

3. 适时就交际的过程给予真实的评价。

学生正处于青少年时代,总希望得到别人的肯定和尊重。如果教师课堂上注重正面礼貌策略,真实而又积极地给予各种评价,会收到意想不到的效果。在圆满完成任务之后,教师可以翘起大拇指惊喜地大呼一声:Wonderful!/ Well done!/ Excellent!/You’re really clever…等等;师生在交际中遇到似是而非的问题时,教师可以委婉地说“Maybe you’re right, but how do you find…?”“Shall we discuss it later?”之类的言语;学生在交际中出现错误时,教师可以指出错误,并告诉学生: “This time you didn’t do as expected. I hope you’ll do better next time.”

4.配合英语教学,创设良好的学习氛围。利用实物或图片等直观教具呈现新语言项目,显得真实、形象、可信,利用多媒体进行教学,输出的信息量是常规教学的几倍之多,而且能更好地刺激学生各种感官,激发学生的求知欲;有条件时,还可以开辟板报、英语角、英语广播电视等项目,让学生与外宾直接体验和运用英语从事交际活动。在这样的环境之中,真正可以将要我学变成我要学的局面。我校在建立校园文化之时,广泛在学生中征集校园主要道路名称及标语,同时,我们让学生将初选的内容译成英语,当学生的表达与后来竖立在眼前的标牌一模一样的时候,巨大的成就感不言而喻。今年,我们乘来自美国的一代表团一行10多人访问我校之际,请他们与学生面对面地交谈,此时,学生都想急于知道如何与外宾交往,怎样真实地打开话岔和得体地将交流引向深入。抓住这样的契机,我们轻而易举地给学生讲授和巩固英美习俗、文化差异等知识,学生学得投入,用得及时,用英语进行交际在校园刮起了一股热旋风。

三、 真实交际要把握丰富多彩的文化内涵

交际分语言交际和非语言交际。语言有丰富多彩的文化内涵,不同文化背景的人们在进行跨语言交际时,由于文化或心理的差异往往弄出些差错,甚至严重影响交际的进行而产生相反的效果。因此,课堂交际中的语言应该是真实、生动和有效的。例如,师生初次语言交流时,教师适宜主动提出”Who is your monitor?”“What’s your name, can you tell it to the class/may I ask?”“Which do you prefer, English or geography?” “Which school were you in before you came to our school?”反之,如果询问 “Are you a boy or a girl?” “Who is your English teacher?” 之类的问题,就显得多少有些为问而问的造作之嫌,枯燥乏味、毫无意义。不同国家的形体语言也不尽相同,一方面,结合Body Language这一单元的学习给学生较详尽地给予介绍,同时,在平时的教学中,教师如果恰如其分地使用手势语言或身势语言给予鼓励、评价或暗示等,会给人一种此处无声胜有声的感觉。在类似交际过程中,应充分考虑真实的异国交际习俗、礼仪、话题的选择与禁忌等差异,努力让学生在习得语言的同时,了解西方国家的传统文化和习俗。

该文曾发表于《华中师范大学学报》2000年增刊

谈 介 词 短 语 的 不 规 则 用 法

赵 国 强

  介词多用在名词或名词相应结构之前,表示人、物、事件等之间的关系。具体而言,介词宾语多为名词、宾格代词、动名词或what所引导的从句。略举几例:

He is sitting between Zhang Hua and me.

他坐在我和张华之间。

  Lao Li devotes two evenings to learning English each week.

   老李每周拿两晚上学英语。

Most people are afraid of being alone.

多数人怕孤独。

Don't enter without being asked.

非请莫入。

She is crying because of what he has said.

   她因为他所说的事而哭着。

  例句表明:介词是名词或相应名词结构的前置词,一般来说,介词与其后形容词、过去分词等之间必须使用动名词being。这个规则如果破了,就会犯残缺等语法或语言错误。但在有些特定的结构中,介词短语也出现不规则结构。用得贴切、准确,就会使语言产生新颖、洗练等效果。现将介词常见的不规则用法作简要归纳。

一、 介词+形容词  

该结构较多表现在固定短语中。如:go from bad to worse(每况愈下),for certain(肯定地),through thick and thin(不论情况好坏),等。还有一些结构中,动名词being可以省去。如:

He is regarded as (being) clever. (=He is regarded as a clever person.) 他在人们看来是聪明的。

It was thought of as (being) impossible.

  人们认为这是不可能的。

This article is far from (being) satisfactory.

  该文章远非令人满意。

He was anything but pleased at the news.

  他听到这个消息可说不上高兴。

二、 介词+不定式结构  

该结构主要用于表示“除开”、“除去”意义的介词如except, but 等,如果其前含有否定意义,其后可跟不定式。而且,前有行为动词 do ,后面常常省去to,即构成except/but do 之类的结构(注:save和saving 表示“除开”、“除去”意义时,也具有这一特征,但该意义用法现在已趋淘汰。) 各举几例:

Then it has no choice but to lie down and sleep.

  于是,它别无选择,只好躺下睡觉。

There was clearly nothing left to do but drop herself onto the shabby little couch and weep.

  显然没有别的办法,她只好倒在那破旧的长沙发椅上哭泣。

He didn't want to do anything except(but/save/saving) help me.

  除了帮助我,他不想做任何事。

另外,besides“除……之外(还有)”间或也有以上用法结构。

三、 介词+副词或介词短语  

该结构多用于from,since,until(till)等介词中,具体表现为:from+方位副词或方位介词短语,since/until/till+时间副词或表时间的介词短语。如:

New shoots of bamboo will come up from around the roots of the old ones.

从老杆根部周围又会长出新的幼芽来。

I heard them calling me from below. 

我听见他们在底下喊我。

They have known each other since before liberation.

自从解放前以来他们就认识。

The novel was not published until after the author's death.

 直到作者死后小说才出版。

He used to be out till late at night.

他过去常在外呆到深夜。

  另外,有些介词(短语)由于结构或意义关系,也出现类似结构。如:

 He likes to read in the garden instead of in the room.

他喜欢在花园而不是在房间读书。

  以上几种介词搭配表现出介词规则结构之外的不规则用法。类似这样不规则介词短语实际上属一种习惯表达。如同不规则动词一样,不规则介词短语也只占整个介词短语的一个角落。但它毕竟代表介词短语的一部分。因此,在英语学习中,不规则介词短语结构也是不可忽视的。

                      本文曾发表于《英语学习》94年第12期

_

使 用 被 动 语 态 应 注 意 的 若 干 问 题

赵国强

英语的被动语态是交际中十分常见的表达形式,也是中学生必须学好的重点内容之一。被动语态的主语是句中动作的承受者,动词部分由助动词be+过去分词构成,其时态或变化形式都是通过 be动词来完成的,即:be动词的适当形式 +过去分词构成。为了夯实这一重难点,有关被动语态中的下列若干问题应该引起初学者的高度重视。

一.被动语态的主语来自于主动语态的宾语,因此,不及物动词 (或词组) 是没有被动语态的。也就是说,只有含及物动词或词组的句子才可能构成被动语态。例如:

1) We all speak English. (主动句) →English is spoken by us all. (被动句) 我们都讲英语。

2) People often speak of him. →He is often spoken of. 他经常给提到。

二.由于被动语态中的主语为“喧宾夺主”现象,主动语态的主语被搁之其后由介词by引导,代词的主格在介词后必须换成宾格,强调动作执行者时,by 短语不可省略。如:

1) The plan was made by ourselves. 计划是我们制定的。

2) This short story was written by a famous writer. 这篇短篇小说出自一名家之手。

三.侧重说明动作的承受者,不知道执行者或没有必要说明执行者,或出于礼貌而避免提及执行者时,by 短语可以省略。如:

1) The sports meet will be put off until next week. 运动会将推迟到下周。

2) You are wanted on the phone. 有你的电话。

3) Such a mistake shouldn't be made again. 这样的错误不应再犯了。

四.主动语态的双宾语 (直接宾语和间接宾语) 转换成被动形式,被保留的可以是直接宾语,也可以是间接宾语,间接宾语变成主语较为多见,但要顺其自然。例如:I gave him (间接宾语) some suggestions (直接宾语).其被动句可以是He was given some suggestions ( by me ). 或Some suggestions were given to him.另举例:

1) Mr Smith was offered Room 316 316 was offered to Mr Smith. 316房给了Smith先生。

2) He was asked a lot of questions at the meeting. 在会上他给问了很多问题。

3) Has he been given the first prize? 他给颁的是头奖吗?

4) The news that she won the gold medal was told to her mother. 她获金奖的消息告知了她母亲。

5) The matter was then reported to him by telephone. 该事随后用电话给他打了报告。

用于本句型的谓语动词常有:give, afford, bring, hand, pass, lend, offer, owe, pay, return, tell, send, show, teach, leave, promise, refuse 等。

五.使用get, become, come, go等表示状态变化的连系动词(作“变得”解)来代替be动词构成被动语态,其后多不带by短语。如:

1) The man got lost in the forest 那人在森林中迷了路。

2) I became worried when I heard the unexpected news. 听到意外的消息时,我着急起来。

3) The shoestring came untied. 鞋带子松了。

4)The lady’s complaints went unnoticed.那位女士的投诉无人理睬。

六.主动语态中,宾语之后可以跟逻辑谓语或表语来充当宾语补足语。这种带有复合宾语的主动句转换成被动结构时应注意两点:

只能将宾语改为主语,其后的不定式、分词或形容词等便自然成为主语补足语,但必须放在原位置上不变。如:

1) We call this a chemical change.→This is called a chemical change. 这叫化学变化。

2)The baby was named Lucy by its parents. 父母给婴儿起名叫Lucy.

3) One of the glasses was found broken.(有人)发现有个玻璃杯破了。

4) He is said to be a leading teacher. 据说他是一名骨干教师。

5) He was kept busy doing his maths exercises all day. 他整天都在忙于做数学作业。

2. 主动语态中,make,let等使役动词及see,hear,watch,notice, feel 等感官动词后的不定式须省去to,被动语态中, 该省去的to必须加上。如:He let her go at last. →She was let to go at last.

七.动词短语用作及物动词时,也可变成被动语态,但必须将其看作一个整体,其中的介词、副词等不得漏掉。如:

1) They’re taking good care of him at school. →He is being taken good care of at school. 在学校他给照看得很好。

2)Your homework must be handed in by 8 o’clock. 你的课外作业必须在八点钟以前交。

八. 有时在被动语态中会出现主语+被动式谓语+不定式的被动式(+其它)这一句型,该句型称为双重被动句。判断双重被动句是否正确,要看句中的主语是不是谓语动词的承受者。 试比较:The murderer was ordered to be shot. (句中 murderer 是 order 的承受者)。The policeman was ordered to shoot the murderer. (句中policeman不是 order的承受者)。另举几例:

1) He is said to have been educated abroad. 据说他在国外受过教育。

2) The books are not allowed to be taken out of the library. 这些书不准带出图书馆。

九.下列情况之一不得或多不使用被动语态形式:

1.当主动句的宾语为反身代词时,不使用被动语态。如:

He taught himself maths. 他自学了数学。

2. 有 each other,one another作宾语时,不使用被动语态。 如:

We help each other. 我们互相帮助。

3. 动词不定式作宾语时,不使用被动语态。如:

He wants to take a bus to his hometown. 他想乘公汽去家乡一趟。

4. 动词have及某些固定短语表示动宾关系,不使用被动语态。如: have a walk, make a face, lose heart, keep silence, take place, take part in 等。

5. 某些表示状态的动词。如:arrive, become, belong to, break out, contain, disappear, go, fall, fail, happen, hate, have, own, grow, lie, rise等。

6.某些由行为动词转化而来的感觉类连系动词,主动形式表示被动意思。常见的动词有:look, smell, taste, sound, prove, feel, turn out 等。如:

1) This shirt feels much softer than that one.这件衬衫比那件衬衫摸起来柔软得多。

2)That food smells terrible.那食品难闻。

3)These oranges taste nice.这些桔子味道很好。

4) The news proved (或 turned out ) true. 这消息被证明是真实的。

注:以上这些动词都不能用进行时表示。若用进行时,则表示主动含义。试比较:

The child is smelling the paint.小孩正在闻油漆。

7.在easy, simple, hard, difficult, light, heavy, fit, good, impossible等形容词后,动词不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。例如:

1) The question is easy to answer. 这问题容易回答。

2) " Can you pass the test?" " Oh. It's hard to say." “你能考及格吗?”“喔,很难说。”

3) That box seems heavy for him to carry.那盒子好象他搬起来很重。

在这种句型结构中,动词不定式和主语的关系实际上是一种逻辑上的动宾关系,可以说是动词不定式作主语变换来的,相当于It's easy to answer the question.等等。由于把动词宾语放在主语位置,所以和不定式的关系构成一种被动关系。

8. 某些不及物动词表示被动意义,用以表示主语的品质和状态。常见的动词有:blow, carry, cut, drive, iron, keep, lock, open, pick, read, sell, shut, spread, tear, wash, wear, write等等。这类动词既能作及物动词,也能作不及物动词。作不及物动词时,主动形式表示被动意义。例如:

1) Meat cuts easily. 肉容易切。

2) His new book sells well. 他的新书很畅销。

3) The car drove easily. 这车很容易开。

4) Your pen writes quite smoothly. 你的钢笔写起来很滑爽。

本文曾登于《初中英语读写》2002年第8期

阆中东风中学 文春华

目前中学英语教学中存在的主要问题是一部分教师仍沿袭“一言堂,一锅煮”的传统教育教学模式,将课堂当成“背堂”,将上课当成“演课”,将学生当成“容器”。整节课满堂灌,加上大量机械重复的练习以及频繁的考试,使教学缺乏活力,教学效果欠佳。主要表现为以下几点:

1、 投入与产出不成正比。课堂上,教师花大量时间进行语法知识的分析讲解,轻视对学生综合运

用能力的培养。课堂上不能完成教学任务,就采取加班加点的办法。这种“费时低效”的教学方式,严重地影响了英语教学水平的提高。

2、 学生没有真正成为学习的主人。课堂上老师讲得多,学生练得少,教师不是带着教材走向学生,

就是带着学生走进教材,只注意进行一些机械操练,忽视学生能动性、自主性的发挥。学生自己活动时间少,没有真正成为学习的主人。

3.教学形式单调,学生学习热情不高,主动参与程度差。教学时老师唱主角,少数学生唱配角,

多数学生当观众。致使学生虽学外语多年,在使用语言时,不是听不懂,开不了口,就是读不快,不会写。这极大地影响了学生今后的继续学习,也很难满足社会发展对外语人才的需求。

中学英语课堂教学存在问题的原因,主要有以下几点。

1. 英语教师教学观念不新,创新意识不强。一部分教师把学生当作知识的容器,而不是学习的主

人,教学方法单调、呆板,只要求学生死记硬背和机械操练。

2. 片面追求升学率的影响。长期以来,由于受中考、高考指挥棒的影响,教师习惯于传统的课堂

教学方式,只按照考试的要求进行教学,考什么就教什么,怎么考就怎么教。

3. 传统考查与评估的影响。教师的评优、晋级等与学生的考试分数挂钩,致使教师的课堂教学面

面俱到,生怕哪个内容没讲到,考试时失分。

要解决中学英语教学中存在的问题,只有靠改革。如何以课堂教学为突破口,构建中学英语“自

主学习,自我发展”的主体性课堂教学模式,在课堂教学中充分发挥学生的主题作用,使学生自主学习,这是当前中学英语教学中的一个研究课题。笔者经过教学实践和研究认为,这种自主学习课堂教学模式的主要环节是:创境自情---引动自究----启思自悟---导训自调,即通过创设真实生动的情境,激发学生自我学习的热情;通过引导学生参与课堂教学活动,使其进行积极的自主探究;通过有价值的提问,启发学生思考,使其自我领悟新知;通过指导多种训练,促使学生“动”起来。使课堂教学:活“起来。

(一)创设良好的氛围,激励学生自主学习

美国著名心理学家布鲁纳说:“学习者不应是信息的被动接受者,而应该是知识获取过程中的主动

参与者。在英语教学中,教师要摒弃为考而教的观念,使学生由被动的、静态的学习转变为主动的、动态的学习;要尊重学生的主体地位,把学习的主动权交给学生、让学生自主学习;要培养学生的主动精神、自主意识、给学生充分的学习时间,放手让学生自己读书,创设自主学习的氛围,使学生的学习主动性得到充分发挥。

首先,要激发学生学习英语的动机。

学习动机与学习结果有直接的联系。如果学生对自己从事的探索活动具有强列的欲望和追求,这

种动机就能把学生的积极性充分调动起来,从而有效持久地投入探索活动。在英语教学中,要利用学生好奇心强的特点,通过创设情境,使学生置身于一种探索问题的情境中,从而产生对新知识的需要,并在兴趣的激励下形成探究动机。

其次,营造良好的课堂教学氛围,通过学生说,学生听、学生改,师生评,让学生自己获得答案,

获得成功,激发学生自主学习的动机,使学生想学。民主氛围的营造,可通过以下方法。

1. 主动汇报,交流学习。在学生自学后,教师应创造让学生交流学习所得的机

会,培养学生自学后主动汇报学习情况的习惯,使课堂气氛热烈,学生思维活跃,情绪高昂,完全处于主动学习的状态。

2. 相互讨论,及时评价。可以通过pair work, group work等多种形式组织教学,

营造民主评议氛围。学生通过互评、互议、互补,在民主融洽的课堂气氛下,在老师适当的点拨下,愉快地完成学习任务,从而提高评判分析的能力、交际能力和思维能力。

3. 大胆发问,标新立异。教师要鼓励学生对不明白的 问题要大胆发问,提倡学

生给教师提意见,诱导学生积极思维,发表独立见解,鼓励他们标新立异。当学生的想法与教师不一致时,不要把老师的想法强加给学生,应多问学生是怎么想的,鼓励学生去探究问题。要鼓励学生敢提问、爱提问、乐于探究的精神。

(二) 提供自主学习机会,关注自主学习过程。

优化教学过程的根本是引导学生积极主动地参与学习,学生只有直接参与探索新知的全过程,才

能领悟知识的奥秘,感受学习的乐趣和成功的喜悦。参与的内涵是丰富的,教师在课堂教学时要大胆放手,更多地提供学生参与的机会,充分发挥学生各种感官的功能,让他们多动手、动口、动脑、参与观察、思考、讨论、实验。要做到七个让:课文让学生自学,字词让学生掌握,段意让学生概括,问题让学生发现,方法让学生寻找,重点让学生探索,难点让学生突破,真正让学生参与每节课的全过程。参与要多样化,比如,质疑问难是一种创新精神的反映,是学生思维参与的标志。学生提出一些问题,可能有的问题提的有价值,有的很离奇,甚至可笑,但只要学生敢于提出,就说明学生是积极参与思维的,当然不同学科、不同年级,参与的内容和形式是不相同的。

关注学生自主学习的过程,要优化课堂教学中的反馈与评价。学是核心,导是关键。教师的主导

作用不仅体现在课堂提问的精当,而且体现在处理反馈信息的应变能力上。评价是教师对学生反馈的重要途径,它的作用并不只限于让学生了解自己与目标要求的距离,还应通过评价来激发学生的求知欲,坚定其学习的自信心,交流师生情感,营造宽松和谐的氛围。当学生答错时怎么处理 ---- 是鼓励、引导、点拨,还是训斥、否定、甚至罚站?前者能使学生感到老师态度诚恳,评价中肯。进而产生主动求知的心理冲动,以良好的心态进入学习;后者能使学生产生逆反心理,挫伤学习的积极性。因此,反馈和评价,不仅是学生认知过程的需要,更是凝聚师生情感的需要,教师不要随便说 “No,”。

(三)激励“人自为学”,培养自主精神。

学习者不会思考,不掌握学习的方法,单靠死记硬背“吞”知识,必然会费时低效,进而失去信

心,折了锐气。因此教师在教学过程中“引”要得当,“放”要彻底,鼓励学生“人自为学”。“放得彻底”体现在学生敢于问,善于争,勤于动,即在教学过程中要让学生 “生活在思考的世界里”,体验独立思考的乐趣.要使学生敢于大胆发问,敢于说出自己的见解, 敢于反驳别人的意见,敢于相互争论,在相互交流中受到启发,取长补短。还要在教学过程中充分发挥实际操作的作用,让学生动手。俗话说:“眼过千遍,不如手过一遍。”运用多种感官参与学习活动的过程,这就是学生自主学习能力得到发展的过程。

在教学过程中“放得彻底”,还应当注意以下几个问题。一要区分好“乱”与“气氛活跃”的关系。

有的老师怕学生你一言,我一语,把课堂搞乱,影响课堂纪律。我认为只要教师适当控制,正确引导,课堂上的争论只会活跃课堂气氛,增强学生的学习兴趣。二要留有充裕的思考时间。“放”不能走形式,如果思考时间太短,多数学生还没有想出来,就让学习好的学生发表意见,势必会挫伤其他学生独立思考的积极性。因此为了使全班每一个学生都能进入思考状态,要留有充裕的思考时间,这样在讨论中才能有好的效果。三是尽力给学生创造实践机会,能让学生说的,教师不说;能让学生动手操作的,教师不做。这样才能充分培养学生的自主精神。

总之,中学英语教学是一门艺术,教师在教学中只有注重学生自主能动性的发挥,为学生创设一

种主动探究、积极进取、自主学习的宽松氛围,才能使中学英语教学达到“高效”,“长效”的效果,才能培养出适合社会发展需要的人才。

Teaching Plan

Lesson 59 Unit 15 Book 2

Teacher: Shu Hehua

School: No.3 Middle School ,Danyang

Time: February 5th,2004

Teaching aims:

1. Develop the students’abilities of listening,speaking and reading

2. Learn the new words and phrases

3. Master the use of five simple sentence

Teaching aids: a tape recorder,some slides for shows,

exercises for Lesson 59,pictures

Teaching Procedures:

Step 1: A Free talk

Step 2: Revision

1. Revise the dialogues of Lesson 58

2. Write lists of meat,vegetables,fruit and others on the Bb.

Ask : Whose favourite food is chocolate?

Step 2: Presentation

1. Ask : What does your mother / father do at home?

Do you help with the housework?

2. Get the groups make lists and discuss the answers.

Step 3 : Read and discuss

1. Tell the ss to look at the first passage.

Ask them to quickly skim the text and tell you the main idea.

2. Play the tape for the ss to practise reading aloud.

3. Tell them to look at the second passage and ask “Who is the busiest in Indira’s family?”

4.Discuss the passage, Play the tape and have them repeat.

Step 4: Study

1. Let the ss read through the sentences in the first box carefully.

2. Ask them if they can discoverthe common feather in the sentences.

3. Point out the different parts of the simple sentence

Step 5: Important phrases

1. taste good / feel tired

2. give /pass /buy sb. Sth.

3. my parents both=both of my parents

4. go shopping/fishing/….

5. cook dinner/supper…

6. do some cleaning / cooking /reading/washing…

7. on weekdays / at the weekend=at weekends

8. do some housework/homework

9. do farm work

10. a bit of +不可数名词=a little +不可数名词

11. agree with sb.

12. either 1) adv. “也” I don’t like the book,She doesn’t like it,either.

2) conj. Either A or B + 谓语动词. “要么 A 要么 B…..”

Either you or he __is_____ (be) wrong.

13. Neither A nor B + 谓语动词 “ A 和B都不…”

1) Jim doesn’t know the place. They don’t know the place,either.

=Neither Jim nor they know the place.

2) You weren’t at home yesterday, I wasn’t at home yesterday.

=Neither you nor I was at home yesterday.

14.Do you think + it’s + adj. + to do…

Blackboard Design

Lesson 59

the fifty-ninth lesson

1. either 1) adv. “也” I don’t like the book,She doesn’t like it,either.

2) conj. Either A or B + 谓语动词. “要么 A 要么 B…..”

Either you or he __is_____ (be) wrong.

2. Neither A nor B + 谓语动词 “ A 和B都不…”

1) Jim doesn’t know the place. They don’t know the place,either.

=Neither Jim nor they know the place.

a) You weren’t at home yesterday, I wasn’t at home yesterday.

=Neither you nor I was at home yesterday.

3. Do you think + it’s + adj. + to do…

4. a bit of +不可数名词=a little +不可数名词

5. agree with sb.

Writing anything else for yourself

Thinking after teaching

Teaching Plan

Lesson 60 Unit 15 Book 2

Teacher: Shu Hehua

School: No.3 Middle School ,Danyang

Time: February 6th,2004

Teaching aims:

1. Develop the students’abilities of listening,speaking and reading

2. Learn the new words and phrases

3. Master the use of five simple sentence

Teaching aids: a tape recorder,some slides for shows,

exercises for Lesson 60,pictures

Teaching Procedures:

Step 1: A Free talk

Step 2: Revision

1. Revise the sentences about “either…or…” and “neither…nor…”

2. Revise the food items in this unit

Step 2: Presentation

1. In small groups role-play a parent and a son / daughter

who has a foreign friend over for dinner

2. Get the groups make lists and discuss the answers.

Step 3 : Read and act

1. Ask : What are they eating for dinner?

2. Play the tape for the ss to practise reading aloud.

3. Listen and repeat

Step 4: Test

1. I________ like to eat pizza.

2. We Chinese eat our food with c___________.

3. Fish can’t live w__________ water.

4. A tomato is a kind of v__________.

5. May I take your o_________ now?

6. Help y__________ to some beef,boys.

Step 5: Important phrases

1. Chinese tea without anything in it

2. take a seat=have a seat=take a place

3. something English

4. take-away food

5. home cooking

6. It must be more delicious.

7. much /a little /a bit /even nicer

8. in the open air

9. a table for two

10. sit at the table by the window

11. take your order

12. chicken with potatoes /beef with onions

13. Would you like anything else?

14. have the bill

15. be famous for…

16. many kinds of food

Blackboard Design

Lesson 60

the sixtieth lesson

1.Chinese tea without anything in it 2.take a seat=have a seat=take a place

3.something English 4.take-away food

5.home cooking 6.It must be more delicious.

7.much /a little /a bit /even nicer 8.in the open air

9.a table for two 10.sit at the table by the window

11.take your order 12.chicken with potatoes /beef with onions

13.Would you like anything else? 14.have the bill

15.be famous for… 16.many kinds of food

Writing anything else for yourself

Thinking after teaching

Unit 14 Shopping

Lesson 53

Words and expressions

Be worn out, be excited about doing sth ,what size do you need?

A new pair of shoes, a bit expensive, how much are they ?

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T: The spring festival is coming in about twenty days.

You are going back home for the holiday.

Are you excited about going back home?

Why or why not?

S:

T: What are you going to do during the winter holiday?

S: I am going to…

T: People are usually busy before the spring festival.

What are they busy doing?

S: They are busy cleaning the house, doing shopping…

T: Children are usually very excited about the spring festival.

Do you know why?

S: They have new clothes to wear and they have lots of food to eat…etc.

StepII.Presentation

1. T: Children usually wear new clothes during the spring festival.

What about you ?

Do you wear new clothes during the spring festival?

Did you buy any new clothes last year?

What clothes did you buy?

S: I bought a sweater…

T: What was it made of?

How much did it cost?

Are you going to buy new clothes this year?

What clothes are you going to buy?

S: I am going to buy a pair of shoes/trousers.

I am going to buy a sweater.

T:Are you going to buy a coat/ jacket/sweater/a pair of shoes/ trousers?

What color would you like?

What size do you need?

Would you like a cheap or expensive one?

How can you know whether the shoes fit you or not?

What must you do before you buy clothes?

S: I must try them on first and then decide whether to buy or not.

2.T: You are wearing a pair of sports shoes today.

What size are they ?

When did you buy them?

How much did they cost?

What are they made of?(leather,cloth)

Do you feel comfortable in these sports shoes?

What will you do if they are worn out?

S: I will buy a new pair.

3. T: Miqiko and her friend Miyoco are doing shopping now .

What are they going to buy in the shop?

Please read the dialogue quickly and then find out the answer to my questions.

4. Ask more questions.

a. Why is Miqiko going to buy a new pair of tennis shoes?

b. What about Miyoko?

c. When did they go shopping?

d. What sizesdid Miyoko need?

e. What size did Miqiko need?

f. What were the shoes made of?

g. How much were the shoes?

h. What did Miqiko think of the price of the shoes?

i. How did she feel after she tried the shoes on?

j. Did Miqiko take the shoes at last?

StepIII.Presentation

1. T: Next Sunday is your brother’s birthday .You want to buy a sweater for him.

2. T: You are going to take part in an evening party. You need a new dress.Your mother and you go shopping.

Lesson 53 Shopping online

Words and expressions

Shopping online, take pictures, shape, ad, make a decision, offer the most at the best price, order …,fill in the form, forever.

StepI.Revision

1.Duty report.

2.Revise the words and expressions

be excited about doing sth, try on, a new pair of leather tennis shoes, what size do you need? be worn out, a bit expensive, have you got anything cheaper, Have you got any other color/size/kind? / light green/ dark yellow

StepII.Presentation

1. T: What is the time now?

S: It is 7:40.

T: When did we begin our class?

What were you doing at 7:20?

When did you have breakfast?

When did you do sport?

When did you get up this moring?

2. T: What had you done before 7:35?

S: I had done some reading before 7:35.

I had had breakfast before 7:35

I had done sport before 7:35.

I had got up before 7:35.

T: What had you done before 7:20/ 6:30/ 6:20/6:00?

S: I had had breakfast before 7:20.

.....

3. T: What had you done before / when we began the class?

S: We had done some reading before/ when we began the class.

We had had breakfast before /when we began the class.

......

T: What had you done before you did some reading?

What had you done before you had breakfast?

What had you done before you did sport?

S: I had...... before/ when I...

6:00 6:20 6:30 7:20 7:35

------/-------------/-----------/------------------/-------------------/----------------------/-----

get up do sport have breakfast do some reading begin the class now

4. T: When did you go to bed last night?

What had you done before you went to bed last night?

When did you get to school this morning?

What had you done before you got to school this morning?

What had you done before you got home last night?

StepIII.PResentation

1.T: Have you ever been online?

What do you usually do online?

S: Chatting, sending E-mail,seeing films, playing computer games, reading news etc.

T: Have you ever bought anything online?

Have you ever done some shopping online?

Which do you prefer , shopping online or shopping in real shops?

Why do many people prefer shopping online?

S: It can save time.

it is interesting.

It is easier .

They can buy something without going out.You just click on the screen to order

the thing you want to buy.

T: Some people don't like shopping online, do you know why?

S: Maybe they are afraid they may be cheated online.

They can't see the goods before they buy them.

They can't try them on if they buy clothes, so maybe the clothes will not fit them.

2. T: What is used for taking pictures or photos?

Who owns a camera in our class?

Have you got a camera?

Is it new?

What kind of camera is it?( digital camera, an ordinary one)

How long have you had it?

How much did it cost?

Has it ever broken down?

What kind of pictures do you take with your camera?( trees, flowers, building,

mountains)

When do you usually take a camera with you?

S: Going on a trip/ travelling to other places.

3. T: Yesterday we learned that Miyoko bought a pair of tennis shoes because she was

travelling to Beijing.

She is going to buy a camera online today.

What kind of camera did she order online?

How did she shop online?Please read the passage and then answer my questions.

4. T: Why did Miyoko decide to buy a camera?

Why did she buy it online instead of buying one in a read shop?

What kind of camera did she order online? What brand was it?

How long has she searched the Internet before she found an ad for the Canon digital camera?

What had she done before she asked her father if she could buy it?

What did Mr Sato think of her daughter's choice?

Why did he think so?(offer the best at the best price)

How did she order online?(first fill in a form)

What did she have to fill in the form?

(credit car number,,telephone number, address, e-mail address)

When did she receive the camera she had ordered online?

What did she see in Beijing?

What did she do there with the camera?

Why did she take so many photos there ?

Lesson 55

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T:Words and expressions

be excited about doing sth, try on, a new pair of leather tennis shoes, what size do you need? be worn out, a bit expensive, have you got anything cheaper, Have you got any other color/size/kind? / light green/ dark yellow, make a decision , check out,take pictures/photos,shop online, as well ,offer the most at the best price, an ad for the canon digital camera, a place of interest, fill in the form, so that, so…that ,go over

3. T: Yesterday was the New Year’s Day.

How did you spend the day?

What had you done before you returned to school?

What had you done before you began the class?

What had you done before you had breakfast?

Why did Miyoko decide to buy a camera?

Why did she buy it online instead of buying one in a read shop?

What kind of camera did she order online? What brand was it?

How long has she searched the Internet before she found an ad for the Canon digital camera?

Why did she like the camera?

What had she done before she asked her father if she could buy it?

What did Mr Sato think of her daughter's choice?

Why did he think so?(offer the best at the best price)

How did she order online?(first fill in a form)

What did she fill in the form?

(credit car number,,telephone number, address, e-mail address)

When did she receive the camera she had ordered online?

What did she see in Beijing?

What did she do there with the camera?

Why did she take so many photos there ?

StepII.Presentation

1. T: Suppose you are going to Beijing during the winter holiday, What will you do before you set off?

S: I will…

T: Miyoko had done many things to get ready for the trip before she went to Beijing.

What had she done before she went to Beijing? Can you guess?

S: I think she had…

2. Look at part 3 . Look at the picture and say.

StepIII.Presentation

1. T: Why did Miyoko buy a camera?

S: She bought a camera so that she could take pictures of the trip.

T: Why do people put on raincoats when it is rainy?

S: People put on raincoats so that they won’t get wet in the rain.

2. T: Ask the students to complete the sentences.

a. Mr Green works hard so that

b. We helped the old man cross the road so that…

c. I turned on all the lights so that

d. We planted more trees this year so that..

e. The girl cried harder and harder so that ..

f. I decided to go there by air so that

3. T: When do you usually get up?

If you are allowed to get up later than 7 , will you get up before 6?

S: no.

T: Why do you find it hard to get up in the morning?

S: The weather is cold and the bed is too warm

T: The weather is so cold that we find it hard to get up early .

Who studies best in our class?

Why can she study well?

S: She works so hard that she studied well.

4. a. He got up so late/ early that…

b. we have met so many times that ..

c. the star is so far away from us that ..

d. the room is so dark that …

e. The book cost so much/ little that…

f. Jim felt so tired that …

5. Finish the exercise in the workbook.

Lesson 56

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T: We know Beijing is the capital of our country , many people travel to Beijing every year because there are many places of interest in Beijing.

What places of interest are there in Beijing?

S: The Great Wall , the Great Hall of the people, Tian’anmen Square, the summer palace, the Beihai park, the Palace Museum,

3. T: Have you ever been to Beijing?

How did you go there?

What places of interest did you visit?

Did you go to Tian’anmen Square?

What did you see there ?

Did you see any people flying kites there ?

Did you hear people singing Peking Opera there?

StepII.Presentation

1. T: We know Mijoko went to Beijing last month, What had she done before she went

to Beijing? Do you still remember?

S: She had bought ..

T: Why did she buy a camera?

S: She bought a camera so that she could take pictures of the trip .

T: What places of interest did she visit in Beijing?

Please read her diary and then find out what places of interest she visited

in Beijing and after that put the pictures in the right order.

2.Read it again and answer the questions below.

How did she go to Beijing?

When did she get to Beijing ?

Etc…

期终复习要点

1. 名词复数shelf---shelves copy---copies German---Germans leaf----leaves

2. make sb do sth make+ sb + 形容词

keep sb doing sth keep +sb /sth+ 形容词

3. 动词过去式pay--paid say--said spend--spent cost ---cost cut ---cut fall---fell 点站feel--felt hurt---hurt lie-lay (躺) lay-laid (下蛋)

4.a.某人+pay + 钱+ for sth

b.某人+spend +钱/时间+ on sth/ doing sth

c.某物+cost +某人+ 钱

d.It take+某人+时间/钱+to do sth

我花了十元买这本书。

a.I paid ten yuan for the book.

b. I spend ten yuan on the book/ buying the book.

c.The book cost me ten yuan.

d. I took me ten yuan to buy the book.

5...leave... for...离开....去某 leave Beijing for Shanghai.

1. since two years ago / a week ago (一段时间+ago)

since 1990 / last year (点时间)

8.句子中出现下列词,一般需用现在完成时态. never, ever , just , yet, already , so far , since , recently (最近),in the last two months

He has never been to Beijing.

It has rained since last week.

He has already finished his work.

How many words have you learned so far?

The boy has read two books recently.

He has just finished his book.

9. already 一般 用在肯定句中,而yet一般 用在否定句与疑问句中

Have you finished your homework yet? I haven't finished the work yet.

He has already done his work.

10. used to do 过去常常做某事

I used to play basketball in the classroom, but now I don't .

我过去常常在教室打球,但现在不这样了.

be used to (doing )sth 习惯于做某事

I was not used to living there last year but now I have been used to living here.

我去年不习惯于这儿的生活,但现在已经习惯.

11.borrow sth from sb 向某人借东西. I borrow a book from him.

lend sth to sb 把东西借给某人 He lent a book to me.

12. give up doing sth practise doing sth enjoy doing finish doing sth take part in doing sth stop/ prevent/ keep sb/sth from doing sth

make a contribution to doing sth do well in doing sth

be / become interested in doing sth

keep (on) doing sth mind doing sth be busy doing sth

feel like doing sth be worth doing sth

13. what is the population of Beijing? 北京的人口是多少?

14. 最重要的the most important,

第二重要的 the second most important,

最不重要的. the least important.

15. a little , much , far 放在形容词或副词的比较级前面,用于加强语气.

He is a little younger than me.他比我稍微小一点.

He is far / much younger than me. 他比我要小得多.

16. some time表示一段时间

I stayed in Shanghai for some time last month.(上一月我在上海呆了一段时间)

sometime表示将来某一时间,用在将来时态里.

I will go to see you sometime next week.(下星期某个时间我去看你)

some times 意思为"几次 "

I have been to Beijing some times.(我去过北京几次)

sometimes 意思为"有时"

Sometimes I go to school on foot. (我有时走着去学校)

17. have been to 去过某地,但现在已回来了.

I have been to Beijing several times.(我去过北京很多次)

have gone to 去了某地,人还在那儿

My father has gone to Beijing.( 爸爸去北京了).

18. 形容词或副词必须放在enough 前面,old / big / carefully enough

19. had better (not )do sth let / make sb do sth

would you please (not) do sth ? Could you please (not) do sth?

Watch sb do sth

20.feel / find/hear / see sb do/ doing sth

21. would like /encourage/ want / help/ like / get / ask / tell sb (not) to do sth

warn sb not to do sth

22.hope/ wish / want/ fail /forget / remember/ like/ hate / would like / would love /begin/ start/ plan /decide to do sth

23 . death 为名词"死亡" His death made us very sad.

die 为动词"死亡" He died two days ago.

dead 为形容词"死的" The dog is dead.

24. I have had the books for two years( 买)

I can keep the book for a month.(借)

He has been in the Party for three years. (入党)

I left my book at home yesterday. (忘)

25. too....to .... He is too old to climb up the tree.

so....that ..后面跟上句子,that从句表示结果

He is so old that he can't climb up the tree.

So that 引导的句子表示目的

He gets up early so that he can catch the early bus.

26. none , neither 后谓语动词用单数

None of them is from Linhai.

Neither of them likes eggs.

Neither …..nor .. , either …or… 后面谓语动词与后一个主语保持一致。

Neither he nor I am a student .

Either you or he is a student.

27. south / north/ west/ east 的形容词+ern southern /northern/ western/ eastern

28.-------I have lost my book.

-------When __A__ you _____ it?

A. did , lose B. have , lost

29.Even though/ Although.....引导的让步状语从句,不要再加but

Even though he was late again, but the teacher didn't get angry. (错)

30.return=get back /give back return back (错)

31.名词health 形容词 healthy 副词 healthily

luck lucky luckily

truth true truly

safety safe safely

32. I don't know __B_____ he likes it or not. A. if B. whether C. weather

33. I am not sure if it ___B_tomorrow, If it_____tomorrow, I will stay at home.

A.rains , will rain B. will rain , rains C. will rain , will rain

34.There is a boy___B_____outside. A. to play B. playing C. play

35. _____A____ is very interesting. A. Watching TV B. Watch TV

36. My dream is __A____ a scientist. A. to become B. become

37. I have nothing __B__ to you A. saying B. to say

38.information, spirit ,scenery ,news,work,weather为不可数名词.

39. The story is very____A______, we are ______ in it.

A. interesting, interested B. interested , interesting

40.sound/ seem/ look/ smell 等系动词后用形容词.

The song sounds _______.(beautiful, beautifully)

The food smells _________.( nice, nicely)

41.prefer sth to sth I prefer apples to oranges.

Prefer doing sth to doing sth I prefer swimming to skating .

Prefer to do sth rather than do sth

I prefer to stay at home rather than go shopping.

42. hardly 是否定词,通常与can ,could连用。

He could hardly swim, could he?

44. ------How far ( away ) is Beijing from New York?

-----It is more than 6789 kilometres away .

45. thanks to ..多亏….

With the help of …在…帮助下

In this way 用这种方法

In old clothes 穿旧衣服

Tie….to …把…系到

Be full of

Be filled with

On Christmas eve

Keep doing on sth

46. 情态动词被动语态结构.

Must/ will/ may/ can/could + be + done.

It can be used as a pencil-box.

47. be made of Stamps are made of paper.

be made from Paper is made from wood.

48. 1/4 one fourth / a quarter 3/4 three fourths/ three quarters

48. put up 把…挂起来,举起 put off 推迟 put away把…收起来 put down 放下

49. one morning /afternoon 一天早晨/下午

one day morning/afternoon(错)

Unit 15 A doctor for animals

Lesson 57

Words and expressions

Rewarding,grateful,wag,tail,lonely,success,

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T:You came back to school last week.

Which do you prefer , to study at school or to stay at home?

How long did you stay at home for the winter holidays?

Did you enjoy yourself during the winter holidays?

What did you do during the winter holiday?

Did you watch TV? Did you play computer games?

Did your parents complain about it when you watched TV or played computer games?

What did they want you to do at home?

3. T: you are going to graduate from the school in four months.

Do you think you will continue to study in another high school after you graduate from this school?

Which do you think is the best school for you to continue your study?

S: Taizhou Middle school.

T: Is it your dream to study in Tai zhou Middle school next term?

To study in Taizhou Middle school is your dream.

Do you think your dream will come true?

T: What should you do to make your dream come true?

S: I should work harder.

T: To work hard brings you success.

Have you made up your mind to work harder than before?

4. T: Do you like to keep animals? Do you like to have a pet at home?

Why or why not?

What pets do people like to keep at home?

Some people think to keep a pet at home brings pleasure. while some people think to keep a pet at home brings trouble. What do you think? Who do you agree with ?

A: Yes : Give people a lot of pleasure.’

Help people especially old people feel less lonely

They don’t complain and they are grateful.

B. No. It takes time to take care of them., feeding them, walking it ,cleaning it.

They cost money .

They make room dirty and smelly.

Some animals can spread diseases

5. T: Have you ever kept a pet at home?

Is it still living with you? What happened to it at last?

How did you feel at that time?

How long did you keep it?

What did the pet bring you, trouble or pleasure?

Do you keep a pet at home at the moment?

What animal do you like to keep at home?

Which animal do you prefer to keep at home, a cat or a dog ?

S: I prefer to keep a dog at home.

T: Why do you like to keep a dog at home?

S: Dogs are honest.

Dogs can help guard houses.

Dogs are always grateful.

T: what will a dog do when it is happy to see you?

S: It will wag its tail or puts its ears straight up to show that it is happy or grateful.

T:What will it do when it is angry?

S: it will bark.

StepII.Presentation

1. T: What do you want to be when you grow up?

S: I want to be..

T: Do you like being a doctor? Why ?

What does a doctor do?

Do you like being a doctor for animals or for humans?

Some people believe that it’s more important to help people than to help animals? Do you agree?

3. T: David’s father is a vet. He is a doctor for animals. One day David and his father were talking something about his job.

What does he think of his job?

What does he think of being a doctor for animals?

Let’s read the dialogue in Lesson 57

4. T: Ask the following questions

a. what does Mr Smith think of his job?

b. What animal does he like best?

c. Why does he like to work with animals better?

d. How can he tell when an animal is grateful?

e. What does he think is more important, to help people or to help animals?

f. Why does he think so? Why does he think helping animals is helping people?

g. What pet does David’s family keep? What was it called?

h. Who is the famous animal doctor who wrote many books about animals ?

i. Where did he come from?

j. What other information did he know about the animal doctor ?

k. What did they want to do to get more information about the doctor ?

5. Listen to the tape and repeat.

StepIII.Presentation

1. To study in Taizhou Middle school is your dream.

To work hard brings you success.

To keep a pet at home is a good thing,

To keep a pet at home brings trouble

2. 不定式作主语。

Lesson 58 The man who loved dogs

make one’s mind , mostly,heal,Education, Yorkshire,countryside,treat,

before long, regard…as, exactly, experience

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T: As we all know , people in big cities like to keep small animals such as fish, dogs ,cats, mice,rabbits as their pets, they never kill them, instead, they look after them very well.They regard them as members of their families. In the countryside farmers also keep animals,but these animals are not kept as pets . They are kept to make money. What animals do farmers usually keep in the countryside?

S: Pigs, cows, sheep, rabbits, horses and so on.

T: What do farmers have to do when their animals are ill?

S: They have to send for a vet/an animal doctor.

T: Do you think a vet is a good job?

Do you like being a vet?

Which do you think is more rewarding, to be a doctor for humans or a doctor for animals ?

Which do you think is more difficult, to be a doctor for humans or a doctor for animals?

What does a doctor do?( Heal sick people)

Where does a doctor do?( in a hospital)

What does a vet do ?( Heal sick animals)

Where does a vet usually work?( on a farm)

What kind of people would like to be a vet ?(People who love animals very much)

3. T: Yesterday we got some information about David’s father.

What does his father do? A vet

What does he think of being an animal doctor ?

What animals does he like best?

Why does he like to work with animals better than with humans?

How can he tell when an animal is grateful?

Why does he think to help animals is helping people?

What pet does he keep at home? What is it called?

Who was the famous animal doctor who wrote many books about animals?

Where did he come from?

Did they know any other information abouth the animal doctor?

What did they do to get more information about the animal doctor?

3. T: After they searched the Internet, they got more information about James Herriot, Today we are going to read the story about the animal doctor,please read it carefully and then answer the questions in your workbook.

T: When and where was James Herriot born?

What was his favourite animal?

How can you tell Herriot and his pet dog Don loved each other?

What did Herriot want to be after he graduated from high school?

Was it possible for him to be a vet for dogs at that time?

Why was it impossible to be a vet for dogs when Herriot went to college?

Did he give up his education at the college?

Why did he continue his education?

Where did he work after he graduated from the college?

Why did Herriot start treating dogs?

Why was Herriot laughed at by other vets?

What did they think were real animals?

Why were the owners of the dogs very glad that Herriot would help their pets?

What pets did Herriot himself keep? What were they called?

How did they do when Herriot went to the farms to heal sick animals?

What did Herriot do to let other people learn his experience as a country vet?

How many books did Herriot write about animals?

Which book was just about dogs?

How do you feel when your pet gets ill?

Do you think it necessary to have vets for dogs in your city

Lesson 59

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T: Revise the words and expressions

A doctor for animals/ an animal doctor/ vet

Make up one’s mind/ make a decision/ decide

Graduate from, at first, grow up, heal/ treat sick animals /be grateful to sb/ before long/ regard…as…/ continue to do sth, high school/wag one’s tail

3. T: Yesterday we read a story about a famous animal doctor.

Who was the famous animal doctor who loved dogs very much?

When and where was James Herriot born?

How can you tell Herriot and his pet dog Don loved each other?

Where did he and his dog usually go ?

What did Herriot want to be after he graduated from high school?

Was it possible for him to be a vet for dogs at that time?

Why was it impossible to be a vet for dogs when Herriot went to college?

Did he give up his education at the college?

Why did he continue his education?

Where did he work after he graduated from the college?

What kind of city was Yorkshire?

What work did he do in the city?

Why did Herriot start treating dogs?

Why were dogs never treated?

Why was Herriot laughed at by other vets?

What did they think were real animals?

How did the owners of the dogs feel?

Why did they feel happy?

What pets did Herriot himself keep? What were they called?

How did they do when Herriot went to the farms to heal sick animals?

What did Herriot do to let other people learn his experience as a country vet?

How many books did Herriot write about animals?

Which book was just about dogs?

StepII.Presentation

1. T: Do you want to work in a hospital in the future?

Why not?

Don’t you think to work in a hospital is interesting?

S: No.

T: To work in a hospital is not interesting.

Although to work in a hospital is not interesting ,sometimes we have to go to the hospital when we don’t feel well.

What will a doctor do for you?

What will the doctor ask you to do?

S: To take some medicine.

T: what should you do with the medicine if you want to become well?

S: You should take the medicine on time.

T: Is it necessary to take medicine on time?

S: To take medicine on time is necessary.

T: Sometimes a doctor will ask you to get an injection if you want to become well more quickly.

Are you afraid of getting an injection? Why?

S: To get an injection is a little painful.

T: Have you ever seen a nurse give a baby an injection?

What does a baby usually do when he is given an injection?

S: He always cries or moves his bady.

T: Is it easy to give a baby an injection?

S: To give a baby an injection is not easy.

2. T: To work in a hospital is not interesting.--- It is not interesting to work in a hospital .

To give a baby an injection is not easy.--- It is not easy to give a baby an injection.

….

3. Ask the students to make more sentences like this.

To watch TV interesting/ important/ rewarding/ exciting

To be a teacher easy/ difficult/ painful / dangerous/ useful/

……. Helpful/ kind/

Lesson 60

earthquake, rock, as if, at sea, two-story, grab, crash, mobile phone, at all,at least

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T: As we all know , many people like to keep dogs as pets . In the old days people kept dogs because dogs could help them look after their houses. In the modern world people keep dogs because they feel lonely and dogs can help them feel less lonely .Dogs are always regarded as the most useful animals in the world.

There are many interesting stories about dogs and his owners.

Have you ever heard of such kind of stories ?

Today we are going to read a story about a dog called Cody. It saved a baby in a

Earthquake.

Please read the story again and tell me how Cody saved the baby .

How did Cody save the baby?

Where and when did the story happen?

What was the baby doing when the earthquake happened?

What was Cody doing when the earthquake happened?

What was Mrs Parley doing when the earthquake took place?

How did Mrs Parley feel when the earthquake happened?

Why couldn’t Mrs Parley reach the baby’s house?

What happened to the house because of the earthquake?

What happened to Mrs Parley when she dropped to the first floor?

What did she shout to the dog?

What happened to the bed when Cody jumped out of the bed?

Who called the police ?

Was the baby frightened ?

What did the police do to help them?

What may happen to the baby if Cody didn’t save him?

What can we learn from the story?

3. T: Just now we read a story about a dog called Cody.

There is another dog called Cody. It is ill today so its owner took it to see an animal doctor. Please listen carefully and choose the right answers.

Lesson 60 (II)

StepI.Revision

1. Duty report.

2. T: Yesterday we read a story about a dog called Cody.

What kind of dog was it?

What did it do for its owner?

Where and when did the story happen?

What was baby Robert doing when the earthquake took place?

Where was Cody? What was it doing?

What was Mrs Parley doing at that time?

How did Mrs Parley feel during the earthquake?

Why couldn’t Mrs Parley reach the baby’s room?

Where was Mrs Payley after the house broke in two?

Why couldn’t she climb to the second floor?

What did she shout to the dog?

How did Cody save the baby?

What happened to the bed just as Cody jumped out of the bed?

Who came to save them later?

Who called the police?

Was the baby frightened by the accident?

How can you tell the baby was not frightened by the accident?

Who were taken to the hospital?

3. T: That is the story of Cody . There is another dog called Cody. It is ill today , so its owner Joe took him to see an animal doctor.

What is wrong with it?

What did the doctor do for the dog?

Please listen carefully and choose the right answer for the question in your workbook..

4. Write a story about the pictures in the workbook.

Mrs Green was an old woman .She kept a pet dog called Cody . It was a clever dog .One morning , Mrs Green was badly ill in bed, but nobody could send her to hospital , because she lived alone. Cody felt worried about its owner. Suddenly it came up with a good idea. It opened the door to find someone to save Mrs Green.Just then a man walked past . When Cody saw him , it grabbed the man’s coat in its mouth and pulled the man to Mrs Green’s room. At first the man felt very surprised ,but then he knew why the dog did so.(what happened) He quickly took Mrs Green to the nearest hospital by taxi. At last Mrs Green was saved. When the doctors heard of the story , they spoke highly of the dog.

教 案

课题:浅谈学科教学中学生创新意识创新能力的培养研究

地点:包头市第二十九中学 班级:初三(4)

时间:3月27日 授课教师:包头市第二十九中学 刘慧君

教学内容:Lesson 60 in Unit 15 Book III

教材分析:

本单元话题为Cody saves the baby。主要功能项目为学习动词不定式的用法。本课是一篇阅读课文,介绍了一个美国普通家庭发生地震的故事。全篇课文以一般过去时进行介绍,是学生复习一般过去时的好机会。同时引入了动词不定式做主语、表语、状语及定语的用法。整篇课文约240个词,生词不算多,没有很多新的语法难点。教完课文后可让学生复述课文以巩固所学内容。并且就课后出现的课文填空,可用课文的录音加以练习,以锻炼听的内容。

学情分析:

在教学课文之前,有必要回忆一下有关包头地震的内容。然后提问What happened to you at that time?以激发学生的学习兴趣。动词不定式的用法可以通过课堂操练加以掌握。

教学目标:

1、认知目标:掌握as if、storm、at sea、hang、storey、grab、crash等词汇,复习一般过去时。

2、能力目标:培养学生 听的技能、阅读能力、口语表达能力、书面表达能力及综合理解能力。

3、情意目标:告诉学生预防地震的有效方法及人类与动物和平相处的重要性。进而告诉学生保护环境的重要性。

教学重点:动词不定式的用法及现在分词做状语的用法

教学难点:动词不定式的用法

教学方法:阅读法、情景教学法、讨论法等

教学用具:录音机、投影仪等。

教学过程:

Step 1. Duty work.

Everyday speech +discussion

(每日演讲锻炼学生在大众场合的表达能力,配合适当的问题,吸引下边学生的注意,同时也练习了听力。)

Step 2. Presentation

Revise the earthquake that happened in Baotou in 1996.Let the students chat first (以聊天的形式缓解听课状态下的紧张氛围,打开学生的思路,练习说的能力) and ask some students to tell the others what happened to them at that time, and then give them a short passage that happened to me in the earthquake using the new words and expressions. (通过我的故事,引入生词、词组,给学生以初步印象,导入课文)

Step 3. Presentation.

Show flashcard about the text, and let the students guess what happened. (an earthquake, the dog saved the baby)---就图片展开联想,导入新课。

Then turn to Page 74 and look at the text.

Step 4. Read and explain.

Ask the students to read the text paragraph by paragraph (讲解前让学生逐段阅读课文,以检查其预习效果及阅读能力)and then I explain the important points paragraph by paragraph. (用提问的方式引出课文内容,让大部分学生都张嘴说出课文的大致内容,练习一遍),and then list the key words and expressions on the blackboard, and ask the students to retell the text after me first.(在课文讲解的过程中,一边回答一边列出各段的关键词、句,为后边的复述打下基础)

Step 5. Drills.

Ask some students to retell the text according to the words and expressions listed on the blackboard. 复述是学生对课文内容的又一次巩固,同时又能在课文内容的引导下,使用一些自己的语言,锻炼其表达能力。

Step 6. Practice.

Exercise 2 on Page 178. Show a flashcard about it. Judge whether right or wrong the statements are according to the story, and then correct the wrong ones.

Step 7. Practice.

Exercise 3 on Page 179. Show a flashcard about it.

Listen to the tape and fill in the blanks. (录音机使用的另一种方法)

Ask a student to come to the front to fill in the blanks and then check the answers. (又一次巩固了所学的内容)

Step 7. Write.

Exercise 6 on Page 180. Show it on the flashcard.

Give the students five minutes to write a short passage about the pictures. (with music) And then ask some of them to read their passage. (即兴作文在锻炼学生写作及表达能力的同时,更能激发学生的创造能力。学生经常在自己的造句和写作中有着异乎寻常的表现,也是学生很爱做的练习之一)

Step 8. Word game.

There are some verbs that come from the nouns of some animals. Give them the nouns and let the students guess the meaning of the verbs.

(snake n.蛇---v.蜿蜒而行, snail n.蜗牛---v.缓慢爬行 dog n.狗---v.跟踪,fox n.狐狸---v.欺骗,peacock n.孔雀---v.炫耀,pig n.猪---v.过着猪一样的生活,wolf n.狼---v.狼吞虎咽 ….)

Homework: Finish all the exercises on the workbook.

板书设计

Lesson 60 the sixtieth lesson Cody saves the baby

sleeping/asleep felt as if tried to call the police

beside in a storm climb to get

be busy with… at sea broke her leg not… at all

doing… broke in two shout to… be taken to…

earthquake drop…to… jump into All are now

rock leave out of doing well.

hang grab It’s true to

on the edge of just as say…

two-storey house at least

“宁愿...而不...”表达法种种

涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 刘扬群

[精讲]一 Prefer表示“宁愿”的表达法:

1. prefer something to something意为:喜欢某事而不喜欢某事或宁愿干某事而不原做某事。

[考例]1. ______ does Tom prefer _________ bananas?

A. How; to B. What; rather C. What; to D. Which; to

[点拨]答案为C.此题考查“prefer sth to sth”的结构;What作prefer的宾语,即:prefer what to bananas.

2. prefer doing something to doing something意为:宁愿做某事而不愿做某事。

如: 1. I prefer walking to cycling.

译文: 我宁愿步行而不愿骑车。

3. prefer to do something rather than do意为:宁愿做某事而不愿做某事。

如: He prefers to live in the countryside rather than stay in the city.

译文: 他宁愿住在乡村而不愿呆在城里。

[高考考例]1. Rather than _____ on a crowded bus, he always prefers _____ a bicycle.

A. ride; ride B. riding; ride C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding [MET1992]

[思路点拨]答案为C。此题考查“prefer to do something rather than do something”的结构。

4. Prefer somebody to do something 意为:宁愿某人做某事。

[高考考例]2. --- Do you think the Stars will beat the Bulls?

--- Yes. They have better players, so I ______ them to win.

A. hope B. prefer C. expect D. want [NMET1999]

[思路点拨]本句在谈两个球队谁会胜,因为“the Stars有不错的选手”,具备赢比赛的条件。四个选项中,hope不可接sb to do sth. Expect 可以表示“预料或预计某事会发生”。Prefer 表示“更喜欢”,want为“想”, 他们侧重于主观意愿。故此题选择C为最佳。

[精讲]二 rather 表示“宁愿”的表达法:

1. would rather/ had rather ...than...意为: 宁愿...而不愿...

如:[错]1. I had rather stay with John than Charles.

[正] I had rather stay with John than Charles.

[错]2. I will rather play than work.

[正] I would/ had rather play than work.

[考例]1. --- Will you join us in a game of cards?

--- Thank you, but I’d rather A .

A. not B. not to C., not join D. not do

[考例]2. I asked if she would like a taxi. “No, I’d rather B a taxi. It’s such a lovely day,” she answered.

A. walk than to take B. walk than take

C. to walk than take D. to walk than to take

2. would rather前后可用不同的主语来表示某人宁愿让某人做某事。在这种情况下,一般用过去时来表示现在或将来;谈到过去的情况,一般用过去完成时。

如:1 I would rather you paid me now. (现在)

2. I would rather you had come yesterday. (过去)

Unit23-24考点复习

1. date from/date back to/out of date/up to date 2. on the age of/at the age of on the side of death / on the edge of the plain/at the age of the woods/at the base of/at the bottom of /at the foot of 3. make a good effort/spare no effort/make every effort/try one’s best to do something. 4. at breakfast/ at table/at the table 5.knock out of/ knock over/knock off/knock into down/knock against/ 6. turn over/turn about/turn against/turn away/turn back/turn down/turn in /hand in /turn into/turn on/turn off/turn out/turn up 7. feel like doing like to do sth/would/should llove to do rather do sth/would prefer to dosth/doing sth/8. point out/at/to

9. agree to do sth/agree on doing sth/agree with sb on sth/agree to sth/reach an agreement

第四讲

高 考 命 题 走 向:

定语从句是重要的语法现象,学好定语从句对于更好地理解文章具有相当重要的意义,近年来高考试题多考查引导定语从句的关系代词和关系副词,区别限定性从句和非限定性从句,定语从句和状语从句的不同,关系代词在介词后的使用等。

预2004年的高考题将在关系代词和关系副词的选择,which在非限定性从句中的使用,which与it的区别,that在关系从句中的使用,关系副词和连接副词的使用区别,as在定语从句中的使用等几方面进行考核。

高 考 试 题 自 评:

1. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person ___ she could turn for help. (MET92)

A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom

2. The weather turned out to be very good, ____ was more than we could expect. (MET94)

A. what B. which C. that D. it

3. Caral said the work would be done by October, __ personally I doubt very much. (MET99)

A. it B. that C. when D. which

4. ____ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior schools is increasing. (上海98)

A. Which B. As C. That D. It

5. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ___ was very reasonable. (上海99)

A. which price B. the price of which

C. its price D. the price of whose

6. ---- I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week.

---- Is that the reason ___ you had a few days off?

A. why B. when C. what D. where (NMET99)

7. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ___, of course, made the others unhappy.

A. who B. which C. this D. what (MET2000)

8. The result of the experiment was very good, ___ we hadn’t expected. (2000春)

A. when B. that C. which D. what

9. The film brought the hours back to me ___ I was taken good care of in that far-away village.

A. until B. that C. when D. where (NMET01)

10. ___ is know to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. (NMET2001)

A. It B. As C. That D. What

11. Alec asked the policeman ____ he worked to contact him whenever there was an accident.

A. with him B. who

C. with whom C. whom (上海2002)

12. There’s a feeling in me ___ we’ll never know what a UFO is. (上海2002)

A. that B. which C. of which D. what

13. York, ___last year, is a nice old city.(北京2003)

A. that I visited B. which I visited

C. where I visited D. in which I visited

训 练 提 高:

1. Jack old me everything __ he knew about it.

A, what B. that C. which D. who

2. Lei Lei is the girl __ pronunciation is the best in our class.

A. whose B. who C. who's D. that

3. I, __ your best friend, will try my best to help you.

A. who is B. who am C. that is D. which am

4. All ____ should be done has been done.

A. what B. which C. that D. whatever

5. Who is the boy __ is reading under the tree over

there?

A. whom B. who C. which D. that

6. Around the factory, there are a lot of people __ the smoke from it does great harm.

A. to whom B. for who C. whom D. to who

7. She is the only one of the girls in our class __ been to the United States.

A. who have B. that had C. whom has D. that has

8. The room __ window is still bright is our head teacher's office.

A. which B. its C. whose D. of whose

9. I have three uncles, two of ___ are teachers.

A. whom B. who C. them D. which

10. Can you lend me the book __ the other day?

A. you talked about it B. that you talked

C. about that you talked D. you talked about

11. The two old friends talked about the persons and places __ impressed them most.

A. which B. who C. where D. that

12. These articles are written in simple language, __

makes it easy to read.

A. that B. this C. which D. it

13. My father works in the factory __ this type of truck is made.

A. in where B. in which

C. from which D. of which

14. The school ____ we visited last week was built in 1956.

A. / B. where C. that D. both A and C

15. I shall never forget the day __ we spent swimming in that beautiful lake.

A. when B. in which C. that D. on which

16. I shall never forget the day __ I joined the league.

A. on which B. in which C. that D. when that

17. China is not the same country __ it was twenty years ago.

A. that B. as C. which D. like

18. He arrived half an hour late, __ made us unhappy.

A. as B. that C. which D. when

19. Wang Fei is the boy __ I think is the most diligent in our class.

A. who B. whom C. about whom D. him

20. He is one of the few boys who __ been given the price.

A. were B. has C. have D. was

21. Is the river __ through that town very large?

A. flows B. the one flows

C. that flowing D. that flows

22. ___ leaves the room last should lock the door.

A. Those who B. Anyone C. He D. Whoever

23. She heard a terrible noise, __ brought her heart into her mouth.

A. it B. which C. this D. that

24. I gave him a warning, ____ he turned a deaf ear.

A. of which B. for which

C. about which D. to which

25. There is a mountain ____ the top is covered with snow all the year round.

A. of that B. whose C. its D. of which

26. I have some letters to write __ put off.

A. what is not to B. that can' t be

C. which cannot D. it can't be

27. The teacher told us the truth ____ practice makes perfect.

A. that B. which C. about which D. why

28. Tom told the teacher the reason ___ he was late again.

A. that B. for why C. for that D. for which

29. You should put the book ___ you took it.

A. that B. where C. which D. there

30. Is this pen ____ you are looking for?

A. the one B. that C. which D. it

歼 灭 难 点 训 练 题:

1.----Do you know our town at all?

---- No, this is the first time I __ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming

2. He paid the boy ¥10 for washing ten windows, most of __ hadn't been cleaned for at least a year.

A. these B. those C. that D. which

3. All __ is needed is a supply of oil.

A. the thing B. that C. what D. which

4. After living in Paris for fifty years, he returned to the small town __ he grew up as a child.

A. which B. where C. that D. when

5. His parents wouldn't let him marry anyone __ family was poor.

A. of whom B. whom C. of whose D. whose

6. The word" write" has the same pronunciation __ the word "fight".

A. of B. as C. to D. from

7. Finally, the thief handed everything ____ he had stolen to the police.

A. which B. what C. whatever D. that

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初     

【高考走向】

【知识在线】名词可以分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通名词 (Common Nouns),专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:

  1)个体名词(Individual Nouns):表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。

  2)集体名词(Collective Nouns):表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。

  3)物质名词(Material Nouns):表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。

  4)抽象名词(Abstract Nouns):表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。

个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词(Countable Nouns),物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns)。

1.1 名词复数的规则变化

___________________________________________________

 情况   构成方法   读音    例词

__________________________________________________

一般情况   加 -s  1.清辅音后读/s/;  map-maps

2.浊辅音和元音后  bag-bags 读 /z/;     car-cars

___________________________________________________  

以s,sh,ch,

x等结尾的词  加 -es  读 /iz/    bus-buses

      watch-watches

___________________________________________________

以ce,se,ze,

(d)ge等结尾

的词      加 -s  读 /iz/  license-licenses

___________________________________________________

以辅音字母+y  变y 为i

结尾的词    再加es  读 /z/   baby---babies

____________________________________________

1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化

1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数: 

  如: two Marys     the Henrys monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays  

 比较: 层楼:storey ---storeys  story---stories

2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:

  a. 加s,如: photo---photos  piano---pianos

         radio---radios  zoo---zoos;

  b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes hero-heroes Negro-Negroes

  c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes 

3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:

  a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;proof-proofs cliff-cliffs

  b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves

   wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves;

  c. 均可,如: handkerchief:   handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

1.3 名词复数的不规则变化

1)child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth

  mouse---mice   man---men  woman---women 

注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。

 如: an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;

2)单复同形 如:

  deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese

  li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin 

  但除人民币元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:

a dollar, two dollars;  a meter, two meters

  3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。

   如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说

a person,a policeman,a head of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。

   如: The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。

  4)以s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:

   a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。

   b. news 是不可数名词。

   c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。

   The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。

   d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也可视为单数。

   "The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book.

   <<一千零一夜>>是一本非常有趣的故事书。

  5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes

    若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers

    6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼

7)组成部分没有中心词 最后一个组成词上加 -s

grown-up (成年人)--grown-ups go-between(中间人)--go-betweens

1.4 不可数名词量的表示

1)物质名词

  a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。

    比较: Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)

 These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)

  b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。

   This factory produces steel. (不可数) We need various steels. (可数)

  c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。

   Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。

   Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。

2) 抽象名词有时也可数。

  four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化

  物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。

  如:

  a glass of water 一杯水   a piece of advice 一条建议

1.5 定语名词的复数

名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。

 1) 用复数作定语。

   如:sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room 学生阅览室    talks table 谈判桌 

    the foreign languages department 外语系

 2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。

   如:men workers  women teachers   gentlemen officials

 3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。

   如:goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产 customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush衣刷

 4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。

   如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋)  a ten-mile walk 十里路  two-hundred trees 两百棵树

     a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

    

1.6 名词的格

名词的格

名词的格是表示名词与句中其他词之间关系的名词形式。

名词的格主要有三种:主格、宾格和所有格。

名词的主格与宾格的形式相同,即名词的原形,这种形式也被称为通格或普通格。

名词的所有格又称属格,表示所有关系。

1 名词所有格形式的构成

A. 大多数单数名词后加 's 构成其所有格形式。

Mary's telephone number 玛丽的电话号码 the boy's ball 男孩的球

B. 以 s 结尾的复数名词,在 s 后加 ' 。

the teachers' office 老师们的办公室 he students' dorms 学生宿舍

C.不以s结尾的复数名词所有格的构成形式与单数名词的相同。

the children's toys 孩子们的玩具 the women's hats 女人们的帽子

D.复合词和由两个或两个以上名词表示共有关系的词组,在最后一个名词后加所有格符号's。

his son-in-law's friend 他女婿的朋友 Mary and Linda's mother 玛丽和琳达的母亲

E.如果两个或两个以上名词表示分别的拥有关系,则在每个名词后分别加 'S。

Mary's and Linda's books 玛丽的书和琳达的书 Tom's and Peter's fathers 汤姆的父亲和彼得的父亲

2 以介词 of 加名词组成 of 属格

the title of the text 课文的题目 the roof of a house 屋顶

3 “-'s”与“of”两种所有格的区别。

A.“-'s”所有格形式多用于表示有生命的名词,或表示与人类活动有关的时间、地点、机构等名词

Tom's books 汤姆的书 today's newspaper 今天的报纸

B.“of”所有格主要表示无生命的东西。

the topic of the conversation 话 the surface of the earth 地球表面

C.表示类别或属性时,只能用“-'s”所有格形式。

a women's college 女子学院 children's books 儿童读物

(试比较:a college of the women 那些女人的学院)

D.所有格中的名词后面有定语(如现在分词短语或介词短语等),只能用“of”所有格形式。

It is the book of the boy speaking to the teacher.

这是正同老师说话的那个男生的书。

He is a student of Fifth Middle School in Xi'an.

他是西安第五中学的学生。

E.当所有格中的名词是以定冠词加形容词的形式出现时,只能用 of 构成的所有格形式。

the happiness of the old 老年人的幸福 the problems of the young 年轻人的问题

4 在以下情况中,只能用of与 's 构成双重所有格

所有格所修饰的名词前面有一个数量词或一个指示代词that时,要用双重所有格(数量词包括 a,two,some,no,any,few等)。

a friend of Mary's(=a friend of Mary's friends) 玛丽的一个朋友 some books of the teacher's 老师的一些书 that son of Mr.Smith's 史密斯先生的那个儿子 that smile of the boy's 那个孩子的微笑

注:双重所有格修饰的名词不能与定冠词 the 连用。

5 动名词所有格的省略式

A.当名词所有格所修饰的名词在前面已出现过,为避免重复,往往省略。

I need your help, not Mary's.

我需要你的帮助,不是玛丽的(帮助)。

B.当被所有格修饰的名词表示店铺、教堂或某人的家时,这一名词省略。

I'm going to the tailor's to get my dress.

我要去裁缝店拿我的衣服。

We'll visit St. Paul's (cathedral). 我们将参观圣保罗教堂。

They took part in the birthday party at Tom's.

他们参加了在汤姆家举行的生日聚会。

 

1.You have worked out the plan and now we must put it into ____________.

A.face B.reality C.practice D.deed (NMET1992)

2.He dropped the ________ and borke it.

A.cup of coffer B.coffee’s cup C.cup for coffee D.coffee cup (NMET1993)

3.Here’s my card. Let’s keep in _________.

A.touch B.relation C.connection D.friendship ( NMET1994)

4.He gained his ________ by printing _________ of famous writers.

A.wealth , work B.wealths , works C.wealths , work D.wealth , works (NMET1995)

5.I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible. Just have a little.

A.wait B.time C.patience D.rest (NMET1996)

6.If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask them to leave a ________ .

A. message B. letter C. sentence D. notice (NMET1997)

7.You'll find this map of great_____in helping you to get round London.

A.price B.cost C.value D.usefulness (NMET1998)

8.The________ is just around the corner and you won’t miss it.

A. bicycle’s shop B. bicycle shop

C. bicycles shop D. bicycles’ shop (2000 上海. 春 )

9.Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of _____. (1990上海)

  A. energy B. source C. power D. material

10.These football players had no strict ______until they joined our club.(97上海高考)

A.practice B.education C.exercise D.training                           

11.She is a new comer to____ but she has already made some important discoveries.

 A. chemistry B. the chemistry C. a chemistry D. chemistries (NMET94)

12.Many people agree that ____of English is a must in international trade today. (NMET96)

  A. a knowledge B. knowledges C. knowledge D. the knowledge

13.Mr. Green was so struck by____ of nature that he stayed for another night. (91上海高考)         

  A. beauty B. the beauty C. beauties D. a beauty

14.One of___Joe did was to teach us how to play football.(92上海高考)    

  A. the first things B. first things C. the first thing D. first thing

15.Many people are still___ of writing silly things in public places. (93上海高考)

  A. in habit B. in a habit C. in habits D. in the habit

16.In his lecture, Professor Heaton gave them some____on how to learn a foreign

 language.(87上海高考)

  A. advice B. advices C. advise D. advises

17.We've missed the last bus. I'm afraid we have no ___ but to take a taxi.(NMET93)

  A. choice B. way C. possibility D. selection

18..Could you find an answer to your problem in the book I gave you? I looked at it,

  but it wasn't really_____.

A. much used B. able to use C. of useful D. of much use

19. She tried hard to find a job but she had no ____.

  A. time B. hope C. luck D. chance  

20.Some famous singerslive on the_______from their record sales .

A. salary B. value C. bill D. income.

21.With adress to help him ,he had no _______in finding the professor's office.

A. difficulties B. difficulty C.troubles d. mistakes    

22.--Whar can Ido for you ?   

--I'd like to have a ______-of China daily.

A. piece B. sheet C .lot D. copy

23.The advertisements in newpapers help to cut the _____-of making the newpaper.

A. price B. pay C.costs D.value         

       

K EYS :1-5 CDADC 6-10 ACB AA 11-15AABAD 16-20AADC 21-25 BDC

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 刘扬群

概述:would 与used to 都能表示过去的习惯动作,但两者有区别:

1. Would 表示过去某一段时间内的习惯动作,并未含现在无此习惯之义,比used to 正式,常跟时间状语在一起。used to 表示过去有某种习惯动作或状态,现在已不复存在。

如:1. Every day I would do some running in the morning

译文:我过去每天都要早跑。

2.When I was young, I would do some running in the morning.

译文:我年轻时,常进行早跑。

3. I used to do some running in the morning.

译文:我过去习惯于早跑。

2. used to 表示的是过去持续的行为或状态,而would 不能。

如:1. She used to teach in school.

2. China is no longer what it used to be.

3.Would一般不用于故事的开头,而used to 则可以。

如:We used to live near a small village.

4. 两者均不能用来表示某事发生多少次数。

[正] I went to America six times when I was a child.

[误] I would (used to) go to America six times when I was a child.

[练习]

1. We _____ swim every day when we were children. We ______ run down to the lake and jump in.

A. would; would B. would; used to C. used to; would D. used to; once

分析:答案为C。when we were children是第一空解题的关键,所以应选used to.

2. But she ______ never do it, you know, it was useless even to demand it of her.

A. could B. would C. should D. used to

分析:答案为B。此题考查would 表示意愿。

3. --- How about going at 4:00 this afternoon?

--- Ok, that ______ be a good time for me. Where shall we meet?

A. would B. could C. might D. used

分析:答案为A。

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 刘扬群

[导入]The more you listen to English, the easier it becomes.

译文: 越是多听,英语也就会变得越容易。

[精讲]“The+形容词/副词的比较级+...,the +形容词/副词的比较级...。”句型表示前者和后者在程度上同样增加或减少。译为:越...就越...,前面的句子用一般现在时,后面的句子使用一般将来时或一般现在时;或者前后的句子都用一般过去时。

如:The more a person reads, the wiser he will become.

译文:一个人书读得越多就会变得越聪明。

又如:The more I thought of it, the more frightened I felt.

译文:我越想越感到恐惧。

[高考考例]1. It’s believed that ______ you work, ____ result you will get

A. the harder; the better B. the more hard; the more better

C. the harder; a better D. more hard; more better

[思路点拨]答案为A.此题考查句型the+比较级...,the+ 比较级...。并考查hard与good的比较级。

[精练]1. The more you eat, ______ you will become.

A. the fat B. fatter C. the fatter D. fat

2. The more they tried to help him, ______ he seemed to appreciate it.

A. less B. lesser C. the less D. the little

3. (改错)The more he thought of that, the more worriedly he felt about his mother. __________.

4. (改错)The more careful you are, fewer mistakes you will make. _________.

[简析]1. C 2. C 3. worriedly改为worried.即:felt more frightened about his mother. 4. fewer前加the

[扩展]句型-er + and + -er 表示越来越...

如:Winter is coming, it is getting colder and colder.

[考例]1. Today many rivers that were polluted are getting _______.

A. clean and clean B. more and more clean

C. cleaner and cleaner D. more cleaner and more cleaner

析:C. 此题考查比较级+and +比较级。

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 刘扬群

[精讲] dozen表示确切数目是除能与a和基数词连用外,还能some; many; several修饰,只是确切数含糊。如:three dozen books 其中dozen不加s,其后也不用of;如果dozen 后有these, those, them, us等词, 表示“范围中的某某”时,其后加of.

如:1. We bought two dozen story books yesterday.

译文:我们昨天买了两打故事书。

2. Three dozen of them are league members.

译文:他们中有三十六人是团员。

[高考考例] 1. Shortly after the accident, two _____ police were sent to the spot to keep order. [NMET2000]

A. dozen of B. dozens C. dozen D. dozens of

[思路点拨]答案为C.此题题干中的空前有数词two修饰,dozen不能加s,其后也不能加of,故选C.译文:事故发生后不久,有二十四个警察被派往现场维持秩序。但如果把题干改为:

Shortly after the accident, two ______ the police were sent to the spot to keep order.则选A。译文:事故发生后不久,这些警察中的二十四个被派往现场维持秩序。

[精讲]dozen 构成dozens of 相当于scores of/ a lot of等表示“许多”

[考例]2. There were ____ flies everywhere in my house.

A. dozens of B. three dozens C. four dozens of D. seven dozen of

析:答案为A. dozens of 表示许多,译文为:我房子里到处都是蚊子。

[聚焦]dozen 常见结构:

(1)基数词/many/ several+ dozen+复数名词;

(2)基数词+ dozen + of sb或基数词+ dozen +of these/ those/ one’s+ 复数名词

(3)dozens of +复数名词

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 刘扬群

[精讲]一 attempt 作为动词设法;尝试;试图结构为:attempt to do sth 相当于try to do sth/ seek to do sth

[考例]1. He ____ to escape from the prison, but he couldn’t find anybody to help him.

A. succeeded B. attempted C. advised D. offered

分析:succeed 后不接不定式,而构成结构:succeed in doing sth意思为:成功地做某事;advise doing sth意思为:建议做某事;offer to do sth意思为:主动帮助干某事;

attempt to do sth 意思为:尽力做,但不一定成功。答案为B.

[精讲]二 attempt 作为名词,试图;尝试;结构为:make an attempt to do sth/ make one’s attempt to do sth.

[考例]2. shelly had prepared carefully for her English examination so that he could be sure of passing it on her first _______.

A. intention B. attempt C. purpose D. desire

[思路点拨]答案为B. intention 打算;purpose 目的;desire 欲望;此题考查点为第一次尝试,用attempt 作名词。

[考例]3. ---- I think I can’t achieve my aims.

----- In my opinion, you shouldn’t ______ such a difficult task.

A. attempt B. have attempted C. manage D. have managed

[思路点拨]答案为B.从上句可知“没有实际目标”。因此应用attempt. shouldn’t have attempted 表示过去本不该长石,但却做了。

[知识补充]

1. I let him run on, with no attempt to interrupt him. 意为:完全无意打断他。

2. An attempt on somebody’s life. 意为:谋害某人性命的企图。

              

【高考走向】  

  非谓语动词,即不定式、-ing分词和 -ed分词作定语的用法较灵活,是高考重点考查内容之一。

高考对非谓语动词作定语的考查主要包括以下几个方面的内容:

  1.不定式作定语;

  2.-ing分词作定语;

  3.-ed分词作定语。

【典型例题】

  1.(北京2000, 单项填空)The picture _______ on the wall is painted by my nephew.

   A. having hung B. hanging C. hangs D. being hung

  正确答案:B 根据题干判断,句中需要一个既作定语又表状态的非谓语动词,所以选B。

  2.(NMET97,单项填空)The Olympic Games,______in 776 B.C., did not include women

    players until 1912.

   A. first playing B. to be first played

   C. first played D. to be first playing

  正确答案:C 此题考查分词作非限制性定语的用法,有被动意义,动作已完成,所以选C。

  3.(NMET94,单项填空)The first text books _______ for teaching English as a

    foreign language came out in the 16th century.

   A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written

  正确答案:D 此题考查分词的限制性定语用法,其他与例2类似,所以选D。

【知识点拨】

  1.不定式作定语

   ① 不定式作定语常用于不定代词或被the first/next/only/last等修饰的名词和其他一些名

     词、代词之后。其中,不定式的一般式通常表示一个将来或经常性的动作,完成式则表示

     该动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。

     例如:She is always the first (one) to come and the last to leave.

   ② 如果作定语的不定式与被修饰的名词有动宾关系,在不及物动词后通常要加上适当的介词.

     例如:Let's first find a room to live in / to put the things in.

     We have nothing to worry about.(=There is nothing for us to worry about.)

   ③ 不定式作定语修饰一个在逻辑上是其宾语名词时,若在句子中能找到该不定式的逻辑主语,

     则该不定式多用主动表被动,否则,用被动式。

     例如:I have a lot of things to do today. ( I ... do ... things)

        Have you got anything to say at the meeting? ( you... say ... anything)

        Here is a letter to be taken to Mr. Li.

        在there be句型中,有时用主动式或被动式意思不同。

     比较:There is nothing to do at present.(=We have nothing to do at present.)

        There is nothing to be done at present.(=We can do nothing at present.)

  2.-ing分词作定语

   ① 单个的-ing分词作定语一般前置,说明名词的性质、特征或用途等,-ing短语作定语一般后

     置;强调动作的单个-ing分词也常后置。

     例如:a sleeping car (=a car for sleeping )

        a sleeping child (=a child who is sleeping )

        the boy standing there (=the boy who is standing there )

        The girl singing is my classmate.

   ② -ing分词作定语一般要求其动作与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生或是在说话时该动作正

     在进行,否则,要用从句作定语。

     例如:Do you know the boy talking (=who is talking ) to the teacher?

        Did you notice the boy sitting (=who was sitting ) at this desk

        yesterday?

        The man shaking (=who is now shaking ) hands with Mr. Li visited our

        class yesterday.

     比较:误:He is the man visiting our class yesterday.

        正:He is the man who visited our class yesterday.

  3.-ed分词作定语

    -ed分词作定语一般表示一个被动或已完成动作,-ing分词表示一个主动或正在进行的动作,

  -ing分词的被动式则表示一个正在被进行的动作。

  例如:a developed/developing country

     He is a student loved by all the teachers.

     The building being built will be the third Teaching Building of our school.

  4.像定语从句一样,分词作定语也有非限制性的,其作用相当于一个非限制性定语从句。

  例如:The students, wearing their school uniforms, marched into the playground.

     The substance, discovered almost by accident,has greatly changed the world.

【知识过关】

  1. The computer center,______last year, is very popular among the students. in the

    school.

    A. open     B. opening     C. having opened    D. opened

  2. Most of the artists _______ to the party were from South Africa.

    A. invited           B. to invite   

    C. being invited        D. had been invited

  3. There was a terrible noise _______ the sudden burst of light.

    A. followed           B. following

    C. to be followed        D. being followed

  4. Do you know the boy_______ under the big tree?

    A. lay      B. lain      C. laying        D. lying

  5. Are you going to attend the meeting _______ tomorrow?

    A. to be held B. being held   C. will be held     D. held

  6. I like most of the books _______ in this _______ house.

    A. publishing, publishing    B. published, published

    C. published, publishing    D. publishing, published

  7. This is one of the questions _______ at the meeting now.

    A. to discuss          B. to be discussed

    C. being discussed       D. discussed

  8. Would you please give me a piece of paper _______?

    A. to write  B. to write on C. to write with    D. to be written

  正确答案:1. D 2. A 3. B 4. D 5. A 6. C 7. C 8. B

非谓语动词作状语

               

【高考走向】

  非谓语动词作状语的用法较灵活,很多同学觉得较难掌握,但在高考中却是屡见不鲜的考点。高考对

非谓语动词作状语的考查多与对动词其他形式的考查同时进行,主要包括以下几个方面的内容:

  1.不定式作状语;

  2.-ing分词作状语;

  3.-ed分词作状语。

【典型例题】

  1.(NMET98, 单项填空)European football is played in 80 countries, _______ it the most

    popular sport in the world.

   A. making B. makes C. made D. to make

正确答案:A 此题考查-ing分词作结果状语的用法,所以选A。

  2.(NMET96,单项填空)_______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.

  A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose

正确答案:C 此题考查-ed分词短语作原因状语的用法 be lost in thought是一个短语,意为"陷入沉

     思",所以选C。

  3.(MET90,单项填空)Tom kept quiet about the accident _______ lose his job.

  A. so not as to B. so as not to C. so as to not D. not so as to

正确答案:B 此题考查不定式作目的状语及其结构,所以选B。

【知识点拨】

  1.不定式作状语

    ① 不定式作状语常用来表目的、结果或原因等。

     例如:We eat to live, but we don't live to eat. (目的)

        What has he said to make you so happy? (结果)

        She burst into tears to hear the bad news. (原因)

     注:表目的的不定式还常与so as或in order连用,构成so as (not) to do和in order (not)

       to do 结构,其中so as (not) to do 不能用于句首。

     例如:To get there in time, we got up very early.

=In order to get there in time, we got up very early.

=We got up very early (in order/so as) to get there in time.

    ② 不定式可用于作表语或补语的形容词之后作状语。

      例如:I'm sorry to hear that.

        Be careful not to catch cold .

        The man is easy to get along with.

        I don't think the man hard to get along with.

    ③ 不定式常与too或enough连用,在句中作状语。

     例如:The boy is too young to go to school/ to be sent to school.

=The boy is not old enough to go to school/ to be sent to school.

    ④ 不定式有时用于so...as to do sth.结构中作状语。

     例如:Will you be so kind as to help me with the work?

    ⑤ 有时,不定式还可修饰一个句子,表明说话人的态度。常见的这类不定式有to tell you the

     truth, to be honest, to be franc, to be fair, 等。

     例如:To tell you the truth, I don't like the film.

  2.-ing分词和-ed分词作状语

    ① -ing分词和-ed分词作状语修饰谓语,多说明动作发生的背景、方式或伴随情况。如果在逻辑

     上句中的主语与分词有主谓关系,用-ing分词,有动宾关系则用-ed分词。

     例如:We enjoyed ourselves in the park, singing and dancing.

        Built in 1900, the house is now 100 years old.

    ② -ing分词和-ed分词都可作原因或时间状语, 其作用相当于一个相应的状语从句。如果在逻辑

     上句中的主语与分词有主谓关系,用-ing分词,有动宾关系则用-ed分词。

     例如:Being so poor in those days, they couldn't send the boy to school.(原因)

        Born in a poor family, the boy could not go to school. (原因)

        Hearing the bad news, she burst into tears. (时间)

        Seen from the hill, the park looks more beautiful. (时间)

  3.-ing分词有时可作结果状语。

    例如:Her husband died in the war, leaving her a widow with three children.

       We got up very early, arriving at the hospital ahead of time.

  4.-ed分词有时用作条件状语,其作用相当于一个条件状语从句。

    例如:Given more time, we could have done it much better.

  5.如果不定式或分词表示的动作在谓语动词表示的动作之前发生,该不定式或分词用完成式。

    例如:I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.

       Having never/Not having met the man before, I couldn't recognize him at first.

       Having finished my homework, I went to play football.

【知识过关】

  1. She set out soon after dark _______ home an hour later.

    A. arriving    B. to arrive    C. having arrived   D. and arrived

  2. "Can't you read?" Mary said _______ to the notice.

    A. angrily pointing    B. and point angrily  

     C. angrily pointed    D. and angrily pointing

  3. _______ a reply, he decided to write again.

     A. Not receiving      B. Receiving not 

     C. Not having received   D. Having not received

  4. She is upstairs _______ letters.

    A. writes    B. is writing    C. write       D. writing

  5. The secretary worked late into the night, _______ a long speech for the president.

     A. to prepare  B. preparing   C. prepared      D. was preparing

  正确答案:1. D   2. A   3. C   4. D   5. B

                           

【高考走向】

  小品词"to"是指分别用作不定式符号和介词的"to"。作为不定式符号,to后面接动词原形;作为介

词,to后面接名词、代词或动词的-ing形式。高考对to的考查通常出现在单项填空、短文改错和单词拼写

等题型中,主要包括以下几个方面的内容:

1.不定式符号to的用与不用;

2.to do与doing的区别;

3.对to属性的判断。即, 是to do, 还是to doing?

【典型例题】

1.(北京2000, 单项填空)

 _______ some of this juice --- perhaps you'll like it.

A. Trying    B. Try      C. To try       D. Have tried

正确答案:B 根据情景,题干的前一部分为一祈使句。祈使句要求以动词原形开头,所以选B。

2.(北京2000,短文改错)

 I would like very much come but I have an examination on Monday morning.

正确答案:在come前面加to。would like后面必须接带to的不定式。

3.(NMET99,单项填空)

 The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _______ it more difficult..

A. not make    B. not to make  C. not making     D. do not make

正确答案:B 题干部分已有to make life easier作表语,所以选B,表示对比。

【知识点拨】

1.后面接to do, 不接doing的动词很多,常见的有agree, appear, ask, decide, demand, expect,

happen, hope, learn, manage, offer, prepare, pretend, promise, wish, should like/love,

would like/love, etc..

例如:I would like to have a talk with you.

2.want, need, require等动词与to do或doing连用的问题,已在上一讲中谈到,不在赘述;

3.需要接带to的不定式作宾补的动词主要有advise, allow, ask, beg, expect, get, like, order,

permit, tell, want, warn, wish, should like/love, would like/love, etc..

例如:I would like you to go with me.

4.需要接不带to的不定式作宾补的动词,中学阶段有11个,必须牢记在心。它们是:see, notice,

observe, watch, look at, have, let, make, hear, listen to, feel

例如:I felt someone enter and then leave the room.

5.第4条中的11个动词如果用于被动句,作主补的不定式必须加to (let有时有例外);

例如:He is made to do a lot of exercises by his parents every day.

6.祈使句中的动词,情态动词或助动词之后的动词,以及紧接在why和why not之后的动词都必须用原

形,不能加to;

例如:Why not go and ask the teacher for some advice?

   Why don't you go and ask the teacher for some advice?

7.在had better/best, would rather/sooner, would rather/sooner ... than, cannot

(help/choose) but, do nothing but, have nothing to do but等结构后面必须接动词原形,不能加to;

例如:Yesterday evening, I did nothing/had nothing to do but watch TV.

比较:I had no choice but to wait for Mother outside the house, for I had lost the key.

8.go on, stop, remember, forget, regret, try等动词后面接to do和doing意思不同;

例如:--- I tried to persuade him but failed.

   ---Why not try talking with his parents?

9.to do作状语主要表目的、结果、原因(用于形容词之后)等;doing作状语主要表方式、原因、时

间等;

10.通常只接doing, 不接to do作宾语的动词和习语主要有admit, advise, appreciate, avoid,

be busy, be worth, can't help, can't stand, consider, delay, enjoy, escape, excuse, finish,

forbid, give up, imagine, keep, mind, miss, pardon, permit, practise, put off, suggest,

etc..

例如:The teacher suggested (our) going there on foot.

=The teacher suggested that we (should) go there on foot.

11.包含介词to的短语动词常用的有be/become/get used to, devote ... to, get down to,

look forward to, lead to, stick to, listen to, prefer ... to, 等。(这种结构并不一定都可以接

动词的-ing形式,但都可以接名词和代词作宾语。)

例如:I prefer staying at home watching TV to going to the cinema.

比较:I prefer to stay at home watching TV rather than go to the cinema.

12.口语中,不定式符号to有时单独使用,而省略其后的动词。如I'd love/like to, I used to, etc..

例如:He will go there if he is asked to.

   ---Will you go there with us?

   ---I prefer not to.

   He says he will go if he has got a chance/the time (to).

【知识过关】

1. I would love _______ to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a

report.

A. to go      B. to have gone   C. going       D. having gone

2. The patient was warned _______ any food after the operation..

A. to eat not    B. eating not     C. not to eat     D. not eating

3. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______.

A. not to      B. not to do    C. not do it     D. do not to

4. ---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.

  ---Well, now I regret _______ that.

A. to do       B. to be doing    C. to have done   D. having done

5. Paul doesn't have to be made _______. He always works hard

A. learn      B. to learn     C. learned      D. learning

6. Rather than _______ on a crowded bus, he always prefers _______ a bicycle.

A. ride; ride    B. riding; ride   C. ride; to ride   D. to ride; riding

7. ---I usually go there by train

  ---Why not _______ by boat for a change?

A. to try going  B. trying to go   C. to try and go   D. try going

8. I look forward to hear from you soon. (改错)

9. I had always wanted return to the village after moving away. (改错)

10. The World Health Organization and other organizations are working improve health all

over the world. (改错)

正确答案:1. B  2. C  3. A  4. D  5. B  6. C  7. D  8. hear改为hearing

     9. wanted后面加to  10. working后面加to

 

第二讲             

【高考走向】

  It的用法在高考中也是重现率较高的语言点,尤其是it用于强调句。其考查方式多通过“单项填空”进行,偶尔也出现在“短文改错”和“完形填空”中。

【典型例题】

  1.(NMET98,单项填空)

    It was only when I reread his poems recently____I began to appreciate

   their beauty.

    A.until     B.that     C.then     D.so

   正确答案:B 此题考查强调句,所以用that。

  2.(NMET98,单项填空)

    I hate____when people talk with their mouths full.

    A.it       B.that     C.these     D.them

   正确答案:A 此题考查it作形式宾语的用法,所以选A。

  3.(MET91,短文改错)

    David and I did not agree and David pointed to a path which it he thought

   would probably lead to a village.

   正确答案:去掉it,因为定语从句中已有宾语which。

【知识点拨】

  It 的用法主要包括以下内容:

  1.代替上文中提到过的人或事物。指代人时,一般用于小孩或身份不十分明朗的人。

    例如:

    -Who is the baby?    -It's my teacher's son.

    -Who is that gentleman?-It's my friend,Tom.He(不可用It)wants to see you.

  2.用于表达天气、环境、时间、距离、季节等。

    例如:It's half an hour's walk from here to our school.It's nice and warm

       here.But it's two o'clock now,and it's time for us to go to school.

  3.用作形式主语或形式宾语。除it外,其他代词没有这种用法。

    ①当作主语的不定式、-ing短语或从句太长时,往往用it作形式主语,而将真正的主语移至

    句末,以避免句子头重脚轻。

    例如:It's not easy to learn English well in such a short time.

       It's no use crying over spilt milk.

       It's not decided yet when and where we're going to have the meeting.

    ②当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式、-ing短语或从句,往往用it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语

    移至句末,以使句子重心后移。

    例如:We find it difficult to learn English well in such a short time.

       We think it no use crying over spilt milk.

       We made it clear when and where we were going to have the meeting.

    ③包含介词的短语运动接宾语从句时,必须先由it担任形式宾语,再接从句。

    例如:Please see to it that all the windows are closed before your leave

       the room.

       You may depend on it that everything will be all right.

  4.用于强调句型,即“It is/was+被强调部分+that/who/whom+其它”句型之中。

    使用该句型有以下几点请注意:

   ①强调句的谓语is或was永远用单数,其中is既可强调现在的情况,也可强调过去的情况,

    was只能强调过去的情况。

    例如:It was/is yesterday that I met your father in the street.

   ②不管被强调部分是哪种状语,只能用that连接,不得使用where、when等连词。

    例如:It was in the street that I met your father yesterday.

   ③被强调部分为人时,可用who(主格或宾格)和whom(宾格)代替that,用that也行。

    例如:It was your father that/whom /who I met in the street yesterday.

       It was I that/who met your father in the street yesterday.

   ④强调句中 也要注意主谓一致、人称一致和否定转移的问题。

    例如:It is they who are our friends.

       It was not until ten o'clock that we got home last night.

   ⑤注意不要混淆强调句和其他从句。It is was…that…为强调句标志,去掉后仍可组成一

    个完整的句子,只是没被强调而,而其他从句一般不具备这一特征。

    比较:It was ten o'clock when we got home last night.我们昨晚到家时已十点了。

       It was at ten o'clock that we got home last night.

       我们昨晚是在十点到家的。

    第一句不是强调句,when不可改为that,因为去掉it was和that后,只能组成“We got

    home ten o'clock last night.”这样一个不完整的句子;第二句是强调句,that不可

    改为when.

【知识过关】

  1.Was it during the Second World War ____ he died?(MET88,单项填空)

   A.that   B.while   C.in which     D.then

  2.It ____ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship?(MET88,单项填空)

   A.now    B.that    C.it        D.man

  3.I don't think ___ possible to master a foreign language without much momory work.

   (MET90,单项填空)

   A.this   B.that    C.its        D.it

  4.___ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.

   (NMET95,单项填空)

   A.There   B.This    C.That       D.It

  5.It was about 600 years ago ___ the first clock with face and an hour hand

   was made. (NMET97,单项填空)

   A.that   B.until   C.before      D.when

  6.____computers play such an important part in our daily life?

   A.Why it is that     B.Why is it that

   C.Why was it that     D.Why is it KEY: 1.A 2.C .D 4.D 5.A 6.B

云南省大理州民族中学 何光云 邮编 (671000 )

It 引导的强调句型结构为:“It +be 动词的一定形式 +被强调部分 + that /who 从句 ”。这一结构是高考常见句型之一。 现将常见考点分析如下:

一. 考查引导词it和强调人称代词的情况。在该句型中it是固定用法,一般不可用其他词来替换。人称代词是主语时用主格,是宾语时用宾格。例如:Was____that I saw last night at the concert? A. it you B. not you C. you D. that yourself Key: A (MET95’上 海)

二. 考查引导从句的引导词。注意被强调部分除指人时均可用that/who外,其他均可用that,即使强调的是时间,地点或原因状语时,也不可用when, where或why。

例如 :(1).Was it during the Second World War____he died ? A. that B. while C. in which D. then Key : A (MET’88)

(2).It was about 600 years ago____the first clock with a face and an hour hand was made. A .that B. until C. before D. when Key : A (MET’97)

(3).It was only when I reread his poems recently_____I began to appreciate their beauty. A. until B. that C. then D. so Key: B (MET’98)

(4).It was at the gate____he told me the news. A. that B. what C. which D. when Key: A (MET’80)

(5)._____was in 1997_____I graduated from the university. A. That , that B. It ,that C. That , when D. It , when Key : B (MET’98 上海)

(6).Was it in 1969_____the American astronaut succeeded____landing on the moon? A. when , on B. that , on C. when , in D. that , in Key: D (MET’94 上海)

三. 考查强调状语时的两种特殊情况:

1).强调由not---until引导的状语或状语从句时,要把not与until放在一起。

例如:(1).It was not____she took off her dark glasses____I realized she was a famous film star. A. when , that B. until , that C. until , when D .when , then Key: B (MET’92)

(2).It was not until 1920____regular radio broadcasts began. A. while B. which C. that D. since Key: C (MET’95)

2).强调原因状语从句时,该从句必须是because引导的原因状语从句,因为只有because表示的语气最强。例如:(1)It was because he was ill that he didn’t go to school yesterday. (2).It is___it is raining hard that they can’t go out for an outing. A. as B. since C. for D.because Key: D

四. 考查强调部分为特殊疑问句的结构,要把特殊疑问词放在句首,其后接一般疑问句语序。其结构是:疑问词+is/was+it+that+其他部分。这类句型如出现在宾语从句中,其结构为:疑问词+it+is/was+that+其他部分。

例如:(1).Where was it that you met the Frenchman?

(2). What is it that makes man different from other animals?

(3).I really don’t know when it is that she is to arrive in Shanghai.

(4).I can’t quite remember when it was that you started doing the work.

五. 考查强调句型后面加上附加疑问句时,主语要用it,而不能用原来的主语。

例如:It was John and Mike that you saw in the park yesterday, wasn’t it ?

六. 考查强调句型的问句回答语时,肯定用Yes,it is/was.否定用 No,it isn’t/wasn’t. Be动词还可以用复杂形式:情态动词+完成形式。

例如:(1)A: Was it the headmaster who walked by ?

B:It must have been.

(2) __Wasn’t it Dr Wang who spoke to you just now ?

__ _______________.

A.No, he didn’t B. No, he wasn’t C. Yes, he did D. Yes, it was Key: D (MET’96 上海)

七.考查被强调部分是主语或主语从句的情况。当被强调的部分是主语时,who/that引导的从句的谓语应该与被强调部分在人称和数上保持一致。

例如:(1).It is I who am in charge of the factory.

(2).It was they who were making the same mistakes.

(3).Is was___he said____disappointed me.

A. what, that B. that, that C. what, what D .that, what Key: A (MET’99上海)

(4)It was how the young man had learned five foreign languages_____attracted the audience’s interest.

A. so that B. that C. what D. in which Key: B (MET’2000上海)

一、教法建议

【抛砖引玉】

单元双基学习目标

Ⅰ. 四会单词和词组:

pain , in (the) future , be rich in , contain , fat ( n . ) , soft drink , score , scores of , discuss , discussion , at the end ( of )

三会单词和词组: examine , ripe , advise , patient , energy , weight , put on weight , westerner , cause , unhealthy , lose weight , suggestion

Ⅱ. 交际英语:

人人都希望自己身体健康,工作顺利,生活愉快。人体就像一部机器,机器需要经常保养才能不停地正常运转,不出故障;人也需要营养合理的饮食、充足的睡眠、必不可少的休息与娱乐。倘若你为了省钱省时间而终日凑合着吃东西;倘若你为了挤出更多的时间对付艰苦的学习而挤掉了睡眠时间;倘若你为了多打工赚钱,几乎舍弃了所有的休息与娱乐。那么,生病就在所难免。万一人生了病就需要去医院诊断出出故障的原因,这时就需要和医生打交道,下面是常用到的语句。

医生用语:

1. What can I do for you ? / What was the matter ? / What‘s the trouble ?

2. Does it hurt here ? / It’s nothing serious . / Let me examine you . / Take this medicine three times a day . / And I advise you not to do …

3. Drink plenty of water and have a good rest . / You‘d better have a good rest . / You’ll be well soon .

4. Show me your tongue . / Stick out your tongue . / Did you cough much ? / Fortunately , you only have the flu (流感) . / You‘ll have to be hospitalized (住院) .

5. How long have you been like this ? / Well , let’s see . Open your mouth and say “ah ”. / Keep warm and don‘t catch cold .

病人用语:

1. I’ve got a pain ( cough , headache , toothache ) . / I don‘t feel well . / There’s something wrong with … . / This place hurts . / I feel a great pain here . / I feel dizzy (头晕) . / I took some medicine last night , but they didn‘t help . / Doctor , please give me an examination .

2. I’ve had my temperature taken . I indeed have a fever . / I was hot and cold by turns .

3. I don‘t feel well , doctor . / I hope it won’t last long . / I don‘t feel like eating anything .

4. I have a sore throat ( 喉咙痛) and my chest hurts . / It started bothering me yesterday afternoon . / I feel hot and feverish . / I’m aching all over .

5. I‘ve been losing sleep . / My whole body feels weak . / I’ve lost my voice . / My ears are ringing , and my cheeks burning . / I feel a pain in my left leg .

Ⅲ. 语法重点:进一步学习提出建议和忠告的句型。

1. I advise you (not) to do … / you‘d better (not) do … / I suggest that you (should) do … / Why not do … / Why don’t you do …

2. It‘s better to be absolutely sure , even if it does take a bit more time and trouble .

3. Well , if I were you , I would spend about four days sightseeing in Beijing and two or three days in Shanghai for shopping .

4. Let me give you a bit of advice , if you don’t mind . Stop smoking or at least cut down on it . Watch your diet and …

5. How / What about doing some shopping here ?

6. I think we‘d better send for a doctor .

7. Well , if you go on the way you have , you’re only going to make things harder for yourself .

8. Yes , I suppose so . / Yes , I certainly will . / That‘s a good idea . / Yes , but don’t you think … ?

【指点迷津】

单元重点词汇点拨

1. contain 作及物动词是“包含;包括;能容纳,能装入”

Sea water contains salt .

This auditorium will contain 3,000 people .

〖点拨〗(1) contain 和 include 虽然都有“包含”的意思,但 contain 可用于表示包含所含之物的全部或部分,而 include 则只是包含一部分。试对比:

The parcel contained a dictionary . 那包裹里装的是一本字典。

The parcel included a dictionary . 那包裹里也包括了一本字典。

The tour includes a visit to Paris . 这次旅行包括游览巴黎。

The basket contains a variety of fruits . 这篮子装有各种水果。

(2) including 可以作介词连接介词短语。试比较:

Many women were waiting to buy that kind of cloth , including my mother .

Many women were waiting to buy that kind of cloth , my mother included .

可以这样说,include 着重“被包含者只是整体中的一部分”。contain 着重“内有”。

2. advise 作及物动词是“忠告、劝告、建议”

The doctor advised a soft diet . 医生建议进软食。

〖点拨〗(1) advise + doing

He advised getting plenty of sleep and eating good meals .

(2) advise sb to do 建议某人干……。advise sb not to do sth=advise sb against doing 建议某人不要干

The teacher advised us not to read carelessly .=The teacher advised us against careless reading .

对比:The teacher advised our reading carefully . (动名词复合结构)

(3) advise that + 主语 + (should) do

She advised that he spend his holidays in Heinan .

对比:(误)Sharon suggested me to ask Dr Yang for help .

(对)Sharon advised me to ask Dr Yang for help .

(对)Sharon suggested / advised that I should ask Dr Yang for help .

(对)Sharon suggested / advised my asking Dr Yang for help .

(对)I was advised to ask Dr Yang for help by Sharon .

(4) advice 是不可数名词,表达“一条建议”用:a piece / bit / word of advice 。

3. score (比赛的) 得分;(单复数相同)二十

The score at the end of the game was 5 to 4 against the visiting team . 比赛结果为 5 比 4 , 客队败北。

What‘s the score now ? 现在比分是多少 ?

〖点拨〗(1) scores of 许多,大批

The exhibition has scores of visitors every day .

(2) score 前有数词时,score 用单数,其后的 of 常省略。但在代词或者起定语作用的指示代词及物主掉次前的 of 不能省略。

Three score of them are League members .

Three score of those eggs are his .

She has two score (of) eggs . (这种情况下最好不用 of )

4. discuss 作及物动词是“讨论,议论”。名词形式是 discussion 。

I’ve something of great importance to discuss with you .

After careful discussion the two parties reached an agreement on this matter .

〖点拨〗(1) discuss 后直接接名词、疑问词 + to do ,不接 about / on 。但discussion 后可以接about 。

(错)We have discussed about the problem .

(对)We have discussed the problem .

(对)We have had a discussion about the problem .

(2) discuss sth with sb 和某人讨论……

We will discuss the changes of our school with them later .

(3) discuss freely 自由讨论,discuss fully / thoroughly 充分讨论,discuss keenly 激烈讨论,under discussion 在讨论中,have a long discussion about / on sth 对……进行长时间的讨论, a heated / hot discussion 热烈的讨论。

5. suggestion 建议

Your suggestion is very helpful .

〖点拨〗(1) 含有suggestion 的主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句、定语从句中主句谓语用 should 型虚拟式。

We agree to his suggestion that the book (should) be published once more .

(2) suggestion 的搭配有:make a helpful / timely suggestion 作出有益(适时)的建议。act on / at one‘s suggestion=act on / at the suggestion of sb 按照某人的建议做。

(3) suggestion , advice 和 opinion

advice 多指根据自己的学识和经验提出来的供人参考的意见。suggestion 指为改进工作、解决问题而提出的建议,比 advice 委婉。opinion 是日常用语,指对某事的观点、想法。另外,advice 是不可数名词。

Advice is seldom welcome . (谚语) 忠言逆耳。

In our opinion , these trees must be cut down at once .

We have decided to pay more attention to their suggestions .

单元词组思维运用

1. at the doctor’s 在诊所

At the doctor‘s you can have your eyesight tested .

2. visit a doctor=see a doctor 看医生,看病,就诊

He had to visit a doctor because of his heart trouble .

3. a piece of bread 一块面包

4. a bit 有点儿(修饰形容词)

These apples are a bit green . 这些苹果有些生。

5. have a good rest 好好休息一下

6. in four hours’ time 四小时后,四小时内

Take two pills now and two more in fours‘ time .

They will arrive in two hours’ time .

7. a diet of 一种……的食物

Every person needs water and a diet of healthy foods .

8 . different kinds of 不同种类的

There are different kinds of moon cakes on Mid-Autumn Day .

Different kinds of book (=Different kinds of books=Books of different kinds ) are on show in the book fair .

9. in calories 以卡来计算

The energy is measured in calories . 这种能量以卡来计算。

10. be asleep 睡者(强调状态)。fall asleep 睡着(强调动作)

11. burn up 烧掉,烧毁;消耗掉。

While you are walking , your body is burning up 100 calories an hour .

If the satellite returns to the earth too fast , it burns up on the way .

The house burned up before the firemen got there .

12. as much as 像……那样多;多达;到达……的程度。as much as 用于不可数的物体,而 as many as 则用于可数的物体。该结构还可以变化为:as much + 不可数名词 + as 或者 as many + 可数名词 + as 的形式。

Here is a bottle of ink . You may use as much as you need .

The average distance of the sun from the earth is as much as 150 million kilometres .

太阳与地球的平均距离达一亿五千万公里。

You should rest as much as possible .

In the countries of Black Africa , there are as many as 700 languages .

When working there , she could earn as much as 500 dollars a week .

He is strong enough to carry as much as 200 jin .

13. be considered (to be ) + 名词或者形容词“被认为是……”

14. be rich in 含有大量的;充满

This kind of fish is rich in vitamins A and D .

A large stretch of land rich in coal is called a coal field .

注意其反义词组是:be low in 含量低。be high in 含有大量的……

15. too much 过于多的(修饰不可数名词、作主语、作宾语、作表语)。而much too修饰形容词和副词。

She gets up much too early , because she has too much work to do every day .

16 . take exercise 运动;锻炼

You need to take more exercise if you want to keep healthy .

She ate too much and did not take any exercise .

17. put on weight 增加体重;发胖。lose weight 减少体重。

Too many sweets and not enough exercise will make you put on weight .

To the great joy of her , she has lost much weight .

18. in the form of 以……的形式

He made the suggestion in the form of a question .

All sounds travel in the forms of waves .

Water exists in the form of ice , snow , steam , etc.

19. one person in ten=one-tenth=one person out of ten 十分之一的人

注意区别:ten to one 十有八九,有可能

20. by the age of 在……岁前;不超过……岁。by 在这里相当于 before 。

She had had three children by the age of 35 .

He had been in the army for two years by the age of 18 .

注意:at the age of 在……岁时。试对比:

She married at the age of 30 .

She had been married by the age of 30 .

21. put … in order 把……按照顺序排列好

22 . value for money 合算,花钱值得

23 . scores of 几十的,大量的,许多的(修饰可数名词)

24 . value of money 合算,花钱值得

25 . lose weight 减少体重

26 . die from heart illnesses 死于各类心脏疾病

二、学海导航

【学法指要】

单元句型思路明晰

1. Even when + 从句

Even when you are asleep , you are using energy . 甚至在你睡觉时,你也在消耗能量。

〖明晰〗even 作为副词放在由when引起的时间状语从句的前面起加强语气的作用。

Even when it is in August , the weather there is very cold .

Even when he was taking a holiday he was worried about his work .

2 . 主语 + be considered + to be + 主语补足语

The Chinese diet is considered to be the healthiest in the world . 中国饮食被认为是世界上最健康的饮食。

〖明晰〗consider 做“认为”时可以带不定式的复合结构,即:主语 + consider + 宾语 + 不定式(主要是 to be 做宾语补足语)。如果将宾语变为主语,则 consider 用被动语态,原来作宾补的不定式便变成为主语补足语。注意:to be 常常被省略后成为:consider + 宾语 + 名词(或者形容词)。

He considered the task to be the most difficult one . → The task was considered to be the most difficult one by him .

We all consider his suggestion to be reasonable . → His suggestion is considered to be reasonable .

We consider this (to be) a useful book . → We consider this book useful .

单元难点疑点释疑

1 . When playing football or basketball , you might be using 400 calories an hour . 踢足球或者打篮球时,你每小时可能要消耗 400 卡能量。

〖释疑〗连词 when , while 引起的时间状语从句,如果从句中的主语与主句中的主语是同一人或物时,则可以省略主谓语,变成“When / while + ing”这中结构。

While he was doing the experiment , he noticed something strange .=While doing the experiment , he noticed something strange .

2 . In some parts of Britain , one person in ten , by the age of thirty , has no teeth left . 在英国有些地方,十分之一的人年方三十,牙齿就掉光了。

〖释疑〗 one person in ten 即 one person in ten persons 的省略,其意思为“十个中有一个人”。与 one person in ten 类似的结构有:one person out of ten , one out of ten persons 。但是,ten to one 是“十有八九,很可能”。

Two teachers in ten are against this plan .

Three out of four people (=Three fourths of the people ) went there to have a look .

It will rain tonight ten to one .

另外,left 为过去分词作定语修饰 teeth ,其意思是“剩余的”。

There is but one chance left . 只剩下一个机会。

3 . scores of people went there in the first few days after its opening . 开张的头几天,许许多多人到那家餐馆去就餐。

〖释疑〗after 为介词,其后的物主代词所有格 its 及名词 opening (开张,开幕;开放)构成介词短语作状语。in the first few days “在头几天里”,这里,the first 不是“第一”,当其后接复数名词时,意思是“头几个,第一批”。

I was one of the first people to visit the newly built factory .

湖南省 涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初

.Unit 9

一、重要词语

  1. information/news/message/notice.   2. although/though/even though/as though  3. waste/a waste of time/money//waste…on sth. /waste…in doing sth. 4. improve/remove/prove

5. complete/ finish/end 6. greatly 7.change … for…/change into

  8. make a decision/decide to do 9. make a plan for sth/intend to do to do sth.10. bring down/~ in/~ up/~out

  11. thanks to/because of/as a result of /owing to/due to. 12. at one time / at a time/ at the same time/in no time/from time to time

  13. take up too much up arms /take up English / take after /take along/take the enemy for one's own away/take down/take off/take on more people/take on a new look/take over the new company/ 14. at home and abroad

  15. go up /go abroad/go ahead/go all out/go away/go bad/go mad/go out/go by/go over/go through/go on doing sth.  16. keep a record (of)…/make a record/set the record/keep the record/break the record/better a record 刷新记录

二、句型及交际用语

1.主+used to do  主+didn't use to do/usedn't to do/ be used to doing used to do sth.

 2. I don't think/ believe…

3. It would be a waste of money to do ….

4.  You might not be able to buy your ticket until three days before you travelled.

5.  Can you try to get them to bring down the price?/get sth.doing/get sb to do sth.

  如何表达自己的观点

三、语法复习

  现在完成时态的被动语态 疑问词+不定式的用法

Unit 9

Exercises:

1. By now we have nearly stopped writing to each other. But __ we kept in touch regular ly.

A.. all the time B. at times C. at one time D.. in no time

2. The price of computers_____ while that of color TV sets __ only to. over 1,000

yuan.

A. is going up; has been brought down B. has go ne up;are being brought dow n

C. is being gone up;has brought down D. has been gone up /is bringing down

3.I tried to get them to __ the price of the TV set. but they refused to. So I didn't buy

it.

A.. go down B. go up C. bring down D. bring up

4. Tom regretted that he had __ too much of his spare time playing cards.

A. spent B. spared C. saved D. wasted

5. If the work ___ by the end of the month is delayed,the sports meet will have to be put

off'.

A. to he completed B. will be completed C. has been completed D. completed

6. Important people don't have much free time as their work _________ all their time.

A.. takes away B. takes up C. takes over D. takes in

7 They ought to attend the meeting,for they __ several times of it.

A. have been invited B. have been informed

C. were asked D. have told

8.I've been looking for the lost key at least for half an hour. but it_________yet.

A. hasn't found B. hasn't been found

C. hasn't looked D. hasn't been looked for

9.--What do you think of the film?

--I_____ think it's worth_______.

A. don't; seeing B. don't ;watching it C. do; not seeing D. do; watching it

10.--I believe we've met somewhere before.

--No,__________________.

A. it isn't the same B. it can't be true C. I don't think so D. I'd rather not

11. I don't suppose any will volunteer, ______________?

A. do I B. don't I C. will they D. won't they

12. I want to learn more about the American political stystem but I don't know where to get the ________________.

A. idea B. information C. situation D. article

13. The thief __________ when he was stealing the wallet from a woman.

A. happened to notice B. was happened to be noticed C. was taken place noticed D. happened to be noticed

14. Short sight can be _________ by the use of suitable glasses.

A. fixed B. improved C. reduced D. corrected

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 

【高考走向】

 As 的用法在高考中是要求重点掌握的内容,也是重现率较高的语言点,尤其是as用作关系代词用来引导非限制性定语从句。综观近几年的高考英语试题,其考查方式多通过“单项填空”进行,偶尔也出现在“短文改错”和“完形填空”中。本文以历届高考试题为例,对它的用法作一简要归纳。

1. As. 做关系代词,引导非限制性定语从句

as引导非限制性定语从句时,指代逗号前的整个句子(即先行词),可置于句首或句末。

Mary was late for school, as often happened.

As is known to all, the earth is round.

[高考考例]1. ______ is known to all, China will be an ______and powerful country in 20 or 30 years’ time (94SHMET.29)_.

A. That…advancing B. This … advanced C. As…advanced D. It… advancing

. [简析]答案为C逗号表明为非限制性定语从句.

[高考考例]2. ____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.

A.It B.As C.That D.What (NMET 2001)

[简析]牰汉疟砻魑非限制性定语从句。选B。

[高考考例]3.____ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing.

A.Which B.As C.That D.It (上海’99)牑

[简析]牬鸢肝狟。与考例2同理。

[高考考例]4。____ has been announced , we shall have our final exams next month.

A. That B. As C. It D. What (上海’2003春。32)

焄简析]答案为B.

2. As 做关系代词, 引导限制性定语从句

as 做关系代词引导限制性定语从句时,关系代词常出现在the same…as, such…as, so…as, as…as 等结构中 如: This is not such a book as I expected.

[高考考例]5.(92SHmet )I am at least _____ age____ Robert if I am not older than he.

A. the same… as B. the same … with C. as same… as D. as same … with (上海’92)

[简析]答案为烝.

[高考考例]6.Our neighbour has ____ours.(03’Beijing.32)

A. as a big house as B. as big a house as C.the same big house as D. a house the same big as

[简析]答案为B.

[高考考例]7.It is generally believed that teaching is _____ it is a science.

A. an art much as B. as much an art as

C. much an art as D. as an art much as (2001NMET.28)

[简析]答案为B

3. As引导让步状语从句,表示“尽管”。

as引导让步状语从句,从句中的表语、状语或主要动词应移到句首

[高考考例]8. ____,I have never seen anyone who's as capable as John.(2001上海)

A.As long as I have traveled B.Now that I have traveled so much

C.Much as I have traveled D.As I have traveled so much

[简析]:答案为C。as引导让步状语从句,从句中的表语、状语或主要动词应移到句首。若表语是名词,该名词无冠词修饰。如: Child as he is,he knows much English.

4. As 引导比较状语从句

As 引导比较状语从句时(as…as /not as…as /not so …as )的中间常用形容词或副词的原级。

表示比较的几种不同句型:

当A=B时,用as … as 与…… 一样(表示同等程度);当A∠B时,用not as/so … as 不如……(表示不到某种程度)

[高考考例]9.She doesn't speak ____her friend, but her written work is excellent.(MET93)

A. as well as B.so often as C.so much as D.as good as

[简析]答案为 A

[高考考例]10. After supper she would sit down by the fire ,sometimes for _____an hour, thinking of her young and happy days.(上海’2003春。35)牑

A. as long as B.as soon as C. as much as D. as many as

[简析]:答案为A.

[高考考例]11.. Americans eat ____ vegetables per person today as they did in 1910.

A .more than twice B. as twice as many

C .twice as many as D. more than twice as many (上海’2002春。39)

[简析]:答案为D.

[高考考例]12.With the help of the German experts, the factory produced _____ cars in 1993 as the year before. (94SHMET.23)

A. as twice many B. as many as twice C. as twice as many D. twice as many

[简析]:答案为D

5.As引导条件状语从句

引导条件状语从句的连接词主要有 as/so long as意思是“ 只要”(on condition that).

[高考考例]13.._____ I know the money is safe , I shall not worry about it.(2003Beijing.31 )

A. Even though B. Unless C. As long as D. While

[简析]:答案为C.

6.As引导时间状语从句

[高考考例]14.____the day went on, the weather got worse.(MET90)

A.With B.Since C.While D.As

[简析]:答案为D.

[高考考例]15.Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially ___ Father was away in France.(NMET94)

A. as B.that C.during D.if

[简析]:答案为 A.这个句子的意思是“妈妈很担心,因为小艾丽斯病了,特别是在爸爸在法国出差期间。”especially后面接的是一个时间状语从句。因此要填 as。当然也可填when,while。during是介词,后接名词或代词,不能接句子。

注意:时间状态语从句中用一般现在时表示将来时间,用现在完成时表示将来完成时间。例如:

As soon as my brother arrives, we'll start working.

[高考考例]16.The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she ____.(MET90)

A. will arrive B.arrives

C.is arriving D.is going to arrive

[简析]:答案为 B.

7. As引导方式状语从句

 [高考考例]17. Careful surveys have indicated that as many as 50 percent of patients do not take drugs _____ directed.

  A) like   B) so   C) which   D) as

   [简析]:答案是D。全句的意思是:“周密的调查已经表明:多达百分之五十的病人没有按照医嘱服药”。as引导的方式状语从句中,常常会省略一部分。句中"…take drugs as directed"相当于"…take drugs as they are directed"

8. As引导原因状语从句:

引导原因状语从句的连接词通常有because(因为),as(由于),Since(由于),now that(既然;由于)等。例如:

As it is raining, you had better take your umbrella with you.

[高考考例]18. We had better hurry it is getting dark.

(A)and (B)but

(C)as (D)unless ( 1984年 高考 .19.)

[简析]:答案为 B.

9.as if, as though

  "仿佛……似的","好像……似的”,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气.

例如:

 They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.

 他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

 He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting.

 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。)

 [高考考例] 19.The foreign friend speaks Chinese so well as if he _________a Chinese.                

 A.is   B.be   C.should be   D.was

[简析]:答案为 D

 [高考考例] 20. The tree looked as if it ______ for a long time.

  A. hasn't watered     B. didn't water

  C. hadn't bee watered    D. wasn't watered

[简析]:答案为 C.那棵树看上去好象很久没人给浇水了。

10..作介词,意思时“作为”,“以……身份”。

例如:He came to China as a tourist five years ago

.

作者:曾省初

工作单位: 湖南省涟源市私立行知中学

联系电话:0738-4426776 13973867616

邮编 417100

E-MAIL robert7616@163. com

假如有一批澳大利亚中学生在京旅游,住在北京饭店,请用英语为他们拟一个参观颐和园的口头通知, 内容要点如下:

1. 参观时间: 五月二日 星期三

2. 颐和园简介: 它是中国最大的保存最完好的皇家园林, 风景优美, 甚是迷人, 有山有水, 有皇家建筑和画廊。

3. 活动安排: 上午自由参观, 中午在快餐馆吃午饭, 下午5:30返回宾馆。

4. 集合时间: 星期三早上6:10, 汽车6:30开, 行驶45分钟。

5. 集合地点: 宾馆大门口。

要求: 不要逐条翻译, 词数100词左右 。

One possible version:

May I have your attention?

We will visit the summer Palace on Wednesday, May 2nd. The Summer Palace is the largest well-kept royal park in China. In the park there is water and man-piled hills. There are some royal buildings and a gallery, too. I am sure you will be struck by its beautiful scenery. In the morning we will be free to visit the different places of the Palace and then we will have lunch in the fast-food restaurant. We will get back to the hotel at half five. Please gather at the hotel gate at 6:10 on Wednesday morning. The buses will start at 6:30. It will take us about 45 minutes to get there . Please be on time. Thank you.

高考书面表达今昔对比专题讲座

(1)电视的发展某英文报纸发起了关于电视的发展的征文活动。电视的发展日新月异,有它的优点,但是也有缺点。请根据下表有关电视的两张表格,写一篇英文应征。

十年前 现在

价格 昂贵 便宜

家庭拥有量 40% 98%

节目 节目和内容少,新闻,文艺,教育体育,趣味性低 涌现大量电视台,节目多,大多数很精彩。卫星电视全天播放。

收视率 15%左右 40%左右

优缺点 画面声音质量差。导致很多人成为近视眼。 由于技术进步,画面声音的质量大大提高。保护视力。看电视成为一种享受。

人们之间交流多。业余的时间主要被用于读书和学习。 大量的时间都被浪费再看电视上,交流越来越少,没有时间读书。

Now TV has improved greatly. Ten years ago, TV was so expensive that only 40% of families could afford one. But now, it’s cheap enough for nearly every family to have one. New TV stations are constantly appearing. There are more programmes than in the past, most of which are wonderful. The satellite TVs broadcast 24 hours a day. What’s more, with the development of technique, the picture and sound of TV are much better than in the past when many people’s eyes became nearsighted caused by watching TV. Now watchers’ eyesight is protected, and people can really enjoy watching TV.

The development of TV has also brought some disadvantages. In the past, people communicated a lot with each other, and their spare time was mainly spent in reading and studying. But now, people waste almost all their spare time watching TV. As a result people communicate less and read less in their spare time.

(2)交通状况

青山村的变化:人口500,坐落在大山脚下。

过去 现在

作物 主要种植玉米, 各种适合山区气候的经济作物。

环境治理 大量的树木被砍伐,经常发生山洪,造成极大损失 植树造林,水土不再流失,没有山洪,生命财产得到保护。

交通 只有一条小路通向山外,出行困难。 修建了一条宽阔的马路,交通旅行多很方便,经济得到促进。

Green hill village lies at the foot of a mountain. The villagers used to grow corn, so that they were rather poor. But now they grow cash crops which are suitable for the weather in the mountain area. In the past, the villagers cut sown a great many trees for building for firewood. As a result, frequent floods caused great losses. Now, a large number of trees have been planted, which hold the soil and water. There are few floods now to destroy people’s possessions. What’s more, in order to develop economy, a broad high way has been built to replace the old small road. It’s much easier for people to transport goods and travel. Thanks to this, the economy is greatly improved.

(3)商业发展:假如你组在一个小镇里,近几年小镇里的商店发生了巨大变化,试根据下表写一篇短文,介绍情况。

过去 现在

数量 只有大小5家商店 大小15家商店

商店种类 一个大商场 商场、超市、便利店大中小各种商店

便利 商店离家远,购物不方便 住的旁边就有一家超市,购物非常方便

商品种类 商品种类不多, 应有尽有,

The small town has changed greatly in the past years. There used to be five shops including only one big one, which were far and inconvenient with not many kinds of goods.

Now there are fifteen shops, such as department store, supermarkets, and convenient shops, large, middle or small. It’s very convenient for me to go shopping because there is a supermarket near my house. We can buy anything we need in the town now.

(4)环境状况:人们的卫生意识不断增强,下表是某市近年来的环境改变情况,请你写一篇短文。

过去 现在

人们习惯 人们随地吐痰 没有人随地吐痰

街道上灰尘很多,很脏 街道上总是打扫得很干净。

街道 街道两边树木稀少。 街道上绿树成荫,所有的空地上都有绿草覆盖

污染 工厂随意排放大量烟雾、废水,空气和水受到严重污染。 工厂严禁排放有毒废气、废水,环境得到改善。

In the past, some people spat everywhere and the streets were rather dirty with a lot of dust. There were few trees along the sides of the streets. The factories used to let out a lot of smoke and waste water which polluted the air and water. But now, everything has changed. No one spit on the ground and the streets are always kept clean. Green trees grow thickly along the streets. All the empty grounds are covered with green grass. The factories are forbidden to let out poisonous smoke or waste water. As a result, the environment has improved greatly.

(5)通信业今昔对比

过去 现在

通信方式 人们主要通过书信,电报联系,少数人用电话联系。 人们通过电子邮件、电话、传真(fax)联系。

通信质量 联系不方便。 通过电子邮件、手机(mobile phone),方便快捷。

购买价格 电脑、手机太贵,用不起 现在电脑、手机价格便宜,手机成为人们必备的通信工具。

使用收费 电报、电话费昂贵。 打电话、上网收费大幅下降

In the past, people mainly used letter, and telegraph, while telephone wasn’t widely used. People used to find communication neither easy nor cheap.

Now, The development of technology has brought great changes in people’s way of communication. Besides letter, telegraph, we have various way of communication, such as email, mobile phone, fax, as well as the internet. To people’s joy, the computer and mobile phone which used to be rather expensive are now so cheap that mobile phone has become a must for people. What’s more, the fees of communication has greatly gone down.。

湖南省涟源市私立行知中学 曾省初 刘扬群

[前言]“介词+which/ whom”引导的定语从句一直都是高考考查的热点,其中介词的选择确定是点。

[精析](1)在介词+关系代词的结构中,关系代词指人时只能用whom;指物时用which.

(2)指物的先行词在定语从句中作定语时还可以用the +noun +of which的结构来表示

(3)先行词在定语从句中作状语时根据不同类型的状语,用不同的介词+关系代词,时间状语使用on; in; by等表示时间的介词;地点状语用on; in; at等表示地点的介词;原因状语用for;方式状语用in; by; with等。

[高考考例]1. In the office, I never seem to have time until after 5:30pm, ________ many people have gone home. [上海高考1995]

A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which time

[思路点拨]答案为D. by which time 勇于指代by 5:30pm

[介词的选择]

在介词+关系代词中,介词的选择受以下限制:

(1)以从句中动词;形容词;名词与介词的固定搭配而定;

[高考考例]2. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. [MET 1992]

A. that B. who C. from whom D. to whom

[思路点拨]答案为D. turn to sb for help 为固定搭配表示“求助于某人”

(2)以先行词与从句中的动词关系及所表达的含义而定或以先行词在定语从句中的作用与含义而定。

[考例]1. The medicine of science, ______ progress has been very rapid lately, is perhaps the most important of all the science.

A. to which B. in which C. which D. with which

[思路点拨]答案为B.从句主谓结构搭配为:progress has been rapid in, 这里的in意为“在某方面”,相当于rapid progress has been made in the science of medicine.

[考例]2. The professor made his first speech _____ he talked about some subjects the students were interested.

A. that B. which C. in which D. of which

[小结]关键词:介词的选用与从句主谓结构的搭配有关。

[跟踪实练]

1. I don’t think the number of people ____ this happens is very large.

A. whom B. to whom C. on whom D. which

2. The school has 3,000 students, _____ 1,800 are men.

A. whose B. of whom C. that D. of which

3. Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase, ______ was very reasonable.

A. which price B. the price of which

C. its price D. the price of whose

4. The gentleman ______ you told me yesterday proved to be a thief.

A. who B. about whom C. whom D. with whom

5. She wrote a lot of stories for children, _____ this is one example.

A. in which B. of which C. among them D. of them

6. He offered us a lot of money _____ we couldn’t buy these machines.

A. without which B. with that C. with which D. without that

7. Mary, ____ for help, has gone to England.

A. who I can go to B. whom I can go

C. to whom I can go D. I can go to

8. Now we have very powerful telescopes _____ we can study the skies.

A. in which B. with which C. through which D. by which

9. The man ______ she was married was a soldier.

A. whom B. to whom C. with whom D. who

10. Tom, ____ I went to the concert, is a friend of mine.

A. whom B. who C. with whom D. whose

答案为:1. B 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. B 6. A 7. C 8. C 9. B 10. C

--湖南省涟源市第二中学 曾 省 初

2004年高考英语书面表达(湖南卷)要求考生对两幅画进行看图作文。文体是议论文,话题是反映城市居住环境存在的一些问题(如空气污染,交通拥挤),重点描述去乡村度假,感受田园生活的乐趣。选材来源于现实生活,贴近考生实际,使考生有一种亲切感。考生有话可说,有句可写。有利于高校选拔优秀人才。

[考生佳作]

I am a middle school student in a city and now I am looking forward to the summer vacation. That’s because I have made up my mind to spend my summer holiday in a countryside.

As is known to all, there are many cars and buses in the city which almost drive people and because of the traffic jam. What’s more, air is polluted by factories. To my joy, air is fresh in the country. There are so many hills that I can climb one whenever I like. There are so many small rivers . Maybe I can get some fish from it. Besides, I can travel the country by boat. I hear there are many kinds of fruits. So I can eat some fruits which I like. In a word, I like the life of the countryside and I’m sure I can enjoy myself there.

[名师点评]

1) 本文要点齐全,语言得体,行文合符逻辑。

2) 表达句式丰富多彩,发挥紧扣主题。

3) that’s because, as is known to all, what’s worse, besides ,so, in a word等连接词的有效使用,使全文结构紧扣,也是本文得分的基点,体现了考生较高的写作水平和较强的语言运用能力,完全达到了预期的写作测试目标。

作者: 曾省初

通讯地址: 湖南省涟源市第二中学

邮政编码: 417100

联系电话: 13973867616

浅析表示状态变化的连系动词
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